All Studies
Search Title:
CAREC 2030: Connecting the Region for Shared and Sustainable Development | РУССКИЙ
CAREC 2030 builds on the solid foundation of progress made under CAREC 2020, and provides the new long-term strategic framework for the CAREC Program leading to 2030. CAREC 2030 is aligned with national strategies and with the 2030 global development agenda.
Oct 2017Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
Trade Facilitation and Better Connectivity for an Inclusive Asia and Pacific
This publication investigates the evolution of trade costs, and reviews the state of play of trade facilitation and paperless trade in Asia and the Pacific.
Sep 2017Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Improving Lives of Rural Communities Through Developing Small Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems
Case studies highlight experiences of six pilot projects on the development of small hybrid renewable energy systems in Asian rural areas and small isolated islands.
Sep 2017EnergyBriefs and notes
The Almaty–Bishkek Economic Corridor | РУССКИЙ
The Almaty–Bishkek Economic Corridor, which emanated from the Almaty–Bishkek Corridor Initiative, transforms the area into a single space where exchange of ideas, movement of goods and meeting people is fast, easy, and free of barriers. This fact sheet explains the corridor concept and its application through Almaty–Bishkek Economic Corridor (ABEC) development, shows the achieved milestones, and outlines the tasks ahead.
Jun 2017Transport, Trade FacilitationCAREC Publications
Lessons from ADB Transport Projects: Moving Goods, Connecting People, and Disseminating Knowledge
This publication shares 20 case stories bearing practical knowledge and lessons for transport projects across Asia and the Pacific region under different socioeconomic and political situations.
Jun 2017TransportGuides
Digital Trade Facilitation: Paperless Trade in Regional Trade Agreements
This paper examines the extent to which measures aimed at dematerializing trade data and documents and enabling their electronic exchange, commonly referred to as paperless trade measures, are included in regional trade agreements, including in the Trans-Pacific Partnership and ASEAN agreements.
Jun 2017Trade FacilitationWorking papers
Turning the Tide in Turbulent Times: Leveraging Trade for Kazakhstan's Development
Kazakhstan is facing its greatest economic challenge since the global crisis. With oil prices at $50 per barrel, the country urgently needs to adjust its economic model and find new sources of economic growth.
(World Bank)
May 2017Trade FacilitationWorking papers
Europe and Central Asia Economic Update
The report finds that policies focused on improving trade in Europe and Central Asia are crucial for building on this modest growth.
(World Bank)
May 2017Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Trade and SDG 13 – Action on Climate Change
This paper assesses the interaction of international trade with climate policies, and the influence of trade on the implementation of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 13 on climate change.
(Prag, Andrew / ADB)
May 2017TransportWorking papers
Asian Development Bank and Turkmenistan: Fact Sheet
ADB operations in Turkmenistan focus on enhancements to transport and energy sectors, with infrastructure projects fostering regional cooperation.
Apr 2017Transport, EnergyWorking papers
Economics of Climate Change Mitigation in Central and West Asia
This report provides an assessment of the costs, benefits, and investment opportunities for greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement in the energy and transport sectors of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan.
Mar 2017EnergyResearch and reports
Afghanistan Transport Sector Master Plan Update (2017-2036)
The updated Plan recommends several urgently needed actions to help Afghanistan deliver on its wider development goals. It is intended to guide the government and donors in allocating and programming future funds to increase the efficiency of Afghanistan’s transport system.
Mar 2017TransportBriefs and notes
Stuck in Transition: Reform Experiences and Challenges Ahead in the Kazakhstan Power Sector
This study draws on the World Bank’s long-standing engagement in Kazakhstan’s energy sector and a number of recent technical assistance and advisory support activities.
(World Bank)
Mar 2017EnergyResearch and reports
Why Trade Finance Gaps Persist: Does it Matter for Trade and Development?
Trade finance shortfalls now appear regularly. Does this matter for trade expansion and economic development in developing countries?
Mar 2017Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyWorking papers
Trade Finance Program Brochure
This brochure provides an overview of the advantages of ADB's Trade Finance Program, a program summary, as well as information on the confirming and issuing bank transaction processes. The three main products of ADB's Trade Finance Program (TFP) are Guarantee Products, Funded Product, Distribution Product (Cofinance).
Mar 2017Trade FacilitationBrochures and flyers
Changing Patterns of Trade and Global Value Chains in Postcrisis Asia
Sophisticated and geographically dispersed global value chains have emerged as an important feature of Asia’s economic success, particularly in East Asia.
Feb 2017Trade FacilitationWorking papers
Energy Storage in Grids with High Penetration of Variable Generation
With increased emphasis on reducing emissions from the power sector, grid-level energy storage can enable larger penetration of renewable energy into the grid.
Feb 2017EnergyResearch and reports
Can Trade Help Achieve the Employment Targets of the Sustainable Development Goals?
The theoretical and empirical links between trade and employment are examined to suggest whether trade has a positive or negative impact on the quantity and quality of employment.
Jan 2017Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyWorking papers
Taking the Safe Route
This publication shares lessons from ADB's experience in embedding HIV education during highway construction in the People's Republic of China.
Dec 2016TransportBriefs and notes
Trade, Infrastructure, and Development
This paper surveys the literature on trade and development, especially on complementarities associated with trade infrastructure.
Dec 2016Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyWorking papers
Mongolia: Development Effectiveness Brief
ADB’s assistance has played an important role in transforming Mongolia into a middle-income economy, and ADB’s country strategy for Mongolia has evolved over the years to match the changing needs of the country.
Dec 2016TransportResearch and reports
Promoting Agricultural Value Chain Integration in Central Asia and the Caucasus
Agricultural value chain integration is crucial for increasing agricultural output in Central Asia and the Caucasus.
Nov 2016Trade FacilitationWorking papers
Unlocking the Potential of Railways: A Railway Strategy for CAREC (2017–2030) | РУССКИЙ
This publication provides a blueprint for the sound, long–term development of CAREC railways. It envisions rail transport to become a mode of choice for trade: quick, efficient, accessible for customers, and easy to use throughout the region.
Oct 2016TransportCAREC Publications
Safely Connected: A Regional Road Safety Strategy for CAREC Countries (2017–2030) | РУССКИЙ
At the 14th CAREC Ministerial Conference, held in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia on September 2015, ministers of CAREC member countries endorsed a joint commitment to road safety. The commitment proposed to take collective action to improve road safety in the region by adopting a 'safe systems' approach.
Oct 2016TransportCAREC Publications
Growing Together: Almaty–Bishkek Corridor Investment Framework | РУССКИЙ
This report discusses the strategic agenda for developing the Almaty–Bishkek Economic Corridor, as well as the comprehensive framework of investments needed encompassing policy reforms, regulatory coordination, physical infrastructure, capacity building, and institutional development.
Oct 2016TransportCAREC Publications
CAREC Development Effectiveness Review 2015 | РУССКИЙ
This CAREC Program Development Effectiveness Review is the sixth annual consolidated picture of progress made by country and multilateral institution partners of CAREC toward economic development through regional cooperation. It measures the performance of CAREC projects and initiatives in transport, trade, and energy during 2015; highlights achievements; identifies areas for improvement; and proposes actions to meet emerging challenges and assist in strategic decision making.
Oct 2016Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
CAREC 2020 Midterm Review | РУССКИЙ
The purpose of the Mid-Term Review (MTR) is to review the relevance and responsiveness of CAREC 2020, including implementation performance, results achieved and the effectiveness of the CAREC institutions; to draw lessons from the experience gained in the first five years of the strategy; and to propose refinements and strategies moving forward.
Oct 2016Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
CAREC Corridor Performance Measurement and Monitoring Annual Report 2015
This report is based on trip samples submitted by national transport associations from CAREC member countries that include performance metrics on cargo transport in the region. The data are then aggregated to show the relative performance of each CAREC corridor.
Jul 2016Transport, Trade FacilitationCAREC Publications
Connecting to Compete 2016: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy
The 2016 edition of Connecting to Compete scores and benchmarks countries’ performance on logistics. Germany ranked first for the second time in a row, and Syria ranked last. The top performing countries tend to be high-income; countries with the lowest scores tend to be low-income.
(World Bank)
Jun 2016Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Asian Development Bank and Afghanistan: Fact Sheet
ADB has approved loans for Afghanistan totaling almost $1 billion and grants amounting to $3.3 billion since 1966.
Apr 2016TransportBrochures and flyers
The Impact of China on Europe and Central Asia
The economies of Europe and Central Asia are facing complex challenges. Meanwhile, the Chinese economy has slowed down and is in the process of fundamental transformation. The report analyses all these challenges and points at the opportunities to become more competitive in global markets.
(World Bank)
Apr 2016EconomyResearch and Reports
Outlook for Increased Adoption of Smart Grid Technologies in ADB Energy Sector Operations
The working paper presents an overview of technical and functional details on smart grids to provide a framework for increased integration of the technology in Asian Development Bank’s Energy Sector operations.
Apr 2016EnergyWorking papers
Together We Deliver 2015: Partnerships against Poverty
Fourteen stories from across Asia and the Pacific highlight successful projects that demonstrate development impact, best practices, and innovation.
Apr 2016TransportBooks
CAREC Corridor Performance Measurement and Monitoring Annual Report 2014
This report is based on trip samples submitted by national transport associations from CAREC member countries that include performance metrics on cargo transport in the region. The data are then aggregated to show the relative performance of each CAREC corridor.
Apr 2016Transport, Trade FacilitationCAREC Publications
Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) Investment Forum 2015: Summary of Proceedings
Participants shared insights on making effective investments in Central Asia, as well as experiences and expectations on how to manage investments. The forum was held on 24 September 2015 in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.
Mar 2016TransportConference Proceedings
Asian Development Outlook 2016: Asia's Potential Growth
This edition of the Asian Development Outlook highlights the need to invigorate developing Asia’s potential growth, whose decline since its peak explains much of the region’s growth slowdown since the global financial crisis.
Mar 2016EconomyBooks
Modernizing Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures to Expand Trade and Ensure Food Safety
The workshop, “Modernizing Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures to Expand Trade and Ensure Food Safety: Sharing the Baltic Experience,” focused on best practices in the area of integrated trade facilitation, one of the priorities under the refined CAREC Trade and Transport Facilitation Strategy 2020.
Feb 2016Trade FacilitationCAREC Publications
CAREC Development Effectiveness Review 2014 | РУССКИЙ
This brochure summarizes what CAREC achieved during 2014 and what its priorities are for 2015 and beyond. Total investments reached around $24.6 billion in 156 projects by the end of 2014.
Jan 2016Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
The Impact of Infrastructure on Trade and Economic Growth in Selected Economies in Asia
This study quantifies the impacts of both hard and soft infrastructure on trade volume for exporters and importers in the region as well as on various economic growth indicators.
(Normaz Wana Ismail, Jamilah Mohd Mahyideen / ADB)
Dec 2015Trade FacilitationWorking papers
From Landlocked to Linked In: The Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Program | РУССКИЙ
This publication discusses the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Program as a partnership of 10 countries supported by six multilateral institutions. The program invests in regional infrastructure and initiatives to promote connectivity and trade, helping the mostly landlocked countries reach out to global markets. The deepening regional trade links are also opening up previously unexploited resources, including huge energy resources.
Sep 2015Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, Energy, Regional CooperationCAREC Publications
Improving Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions through Intelligent Railway Station Buildings
This report aims to support the People’s Republic of China national carbon emission reduction plan in railway station buildings.
Sep 2015Transport, EnergyResearch and reports
Asian Development Outlook 2015 Update: Enabling Women, Energizing Asia
This update highlights how realizing women’s equal rights and contributions to economic and political life can yield ample benefits.
Sep 2015Transport, EconomyBooks
Reforming the Financing System for the Road Sector in the People’s Republic of China
Analyzes the implications of the reform on the operation and maintenance of ordinary roads and recommends the formation of a National Road and Funding Administration, responsible for the national road programs and policy.
Aug 2015TransportResearch and reports
Kazakhstan Trade Report : Improving the Trade Policy Framework
This report is composed of three policy notes that discuss how to improve the trade policy framework, management, and regulations in Kazakhstan.
(World Bank)
Jun 2015Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Together We Deliver: From Knowledge and Partnerships to Results
Read how ADB, governments, people, and organizations work together to deliver sustained and inclusive results. This edition includes stories on ADB projects in People’s Republic of China, Pakistan, and Tajikistan, which are CAREC member countries.
Apr 2015TransportBooks
Asian Development Outlook 2015: Financing Asia's Future Growth
This edition makes the case for further developing Asia’s financial sector to broaden access for households and firms to affordable finance that can spur investment, innovation, and inclusive growth.
Mar 2015EconomyBooks
Climate Proofing ADB Investment in the Transport Sector: Initial Experience
Investments in the transport sector are among those most vulnerable to changes in climate variables. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) has put in place a systematic framework guiding the conduct of climate risk and vulnerability assessments of investment projects.
Jan 2015TransportResearch and reports
Operationalizing Economic Corridors in Central Asia: A Case Study of the Almaty–Bishkek Corridor | РУССКИЙ
This report builds on the long-term strategic framework of the CAREC Program to operationalize economic corridor development (ECD) in the Central Asia region. The study provides a detailed but preliminary exploration of a specific segment of CAREC Corridor 1—the Almaty–Bishkek Corridor—to assess its potential as a pilot for ECD, and outlines steps to be taken over the next 12 months to develop this corridor.
Nov 2014Transport, Trade FacilitationCAREC Publications
CAREC Development Effectiveness Review 2013: A Refined Perspective | РУССКИЙ
This review measures the performance of CAREC projects and initiatives in transport, trade, and energy during 2013; highlights achievements; identifies areas for improvement; and proposes actions to meet emerging challenges and assist in strategic decision making.
Nov 2014Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
CAREC Development Effectiveness Review (DEfR) 2013: A Refined Perspective | РУССКИЙ
This DEfR is the fifth annual consolidated picture of progress made by country and multilateral institution partners of CAREC toward economic development through regional cooperation. This brochure provides a snapshot of the CAREC Program's progress in 2013.
Oct 2014Transport, Trade Facilitation, Energy, Trade PolicyCAREC Publications
CAREC Corridor Performance Measurement and Monitoring: A Forward-Looking Retrospective | РУССКИЙ | 中文
This report describes how CAREC corridor performance measurement and monitoring (CPMM) helps to achieve the objectives of the CAREC Transport and Trade Facilitation Strategy and its Implementation Action Plan.
Oct 2014Transport, Trade FacilitationCAREC Publications
Price of Electricity Transit in Transition Countries | РУССКИЙ
This report analyzes various issues related to electricity transit in selected countries of Central and South Asia and compares existing transit tariff methodologies and to make recommendations to the respective decision making bodies of the region.
(Energy Charter)
Oct 2014EnergyResearch and reports
Energy Security in Asia: Prospects for Regional Cooperation
Three case studies illustrate some of the secondary consequences of the search for energy security and its relationship to regional trade and cooperation.
(Lucas, Nigel / ADB)
Sep 2014EnergyWorking Papers
Asian Development Outlook 2014 Update: Asia in Global Value Chains
This update to April 2014 publication shows whether previous forecasts were met, explaining divergence between forecasts and the actual outturn, and firms the forecasts for the next 18 months or so.
Sep 2014EconomyBooks
Revitalizing Industrial Growth in Pakistan: Trade, Infrastructure, and Environmental Performance
Shows how Pakistan can revitalize its manufacturing by reducing the cost of doing business, improving the investment climate, and strengthening institutions to facilitate the flow of people, goods, and ideas and thus stimulate medium-term growth and job creation.
(Sanchez-Triana, Ernesto; Biller, Dan; Nabi, Ijaz; Ortolano, Leonard; Dezfuli, Ghazal; Afzal, Javaid; Enriquez, Santiago / World Bank)
Jul 2014Trade FacilitationBooks
CAREC Corridor Performance Measurement and Monitoring Annual Report 2013 | РУССКИЙ
Based on data submitted by national transport associations from CAREC member countries and using time-cost-distance methodology, the report focuses on measuring time and costs incurred in transporting various types of goods across Central Asia.
Jun 2014Transport, Trade FacilitationCAREC Publications
The Eurasian Connection : Supply-Chain Efficiency along the Modern Silk Route through Central Asia
Explains how supply chain fragmentation remains a serious obstacle to economic development of Central Asia and provides a comprehensive assessment of the various factors that impede supply-chain integration, including weak transport and communications infrastructure.
(Rastogi, Cordula; Arvis, Jean-Francois / World Bank)
Jun 2014Transport, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Regional Economic Outlook Update: Middle East & Central Asia (May 2014) | РУССКИЙ | 中文
Economic growth is expected to decline slightly, mainly because of weakening growth momentum in emerging market trading partners (particularly, China, Russia, and Turkey) and a temporary decline in oil output growth in Kazakhstan.
May 2014EconomyResearch and reports
Climate Change and Sustainable Water Management in Central Asia
Describes the results of research conducted thru an ADB-funded technical assistance that combined field observations with satellite-based data and created models to demonstrate the impacts of climate change on the Aral Sea Basin.
(Punkari, Mikko; Droogers, Peter; Immerzeel, Walter; Korhonen, Natalia; Lutz, Arthur; Venäläinen, Ari / ADB)
May 2014EnergyWorking Papers
Analysis of Informal Obstacles to Cross-Border Economic Activity in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan
Analyzes trade barriers in manufacturing, transport, and agriculture, which are key industries that experience different types of restrictions and varying degrees of state intervention in both countries.
(Vakulchuk, Roman; Irnazarov, Farrukh / ADB)
May 2014Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyWorking Papers
Asian Development Outlook 2014: Fiscal Policy for Inclusive Growth
Takes a close look at the role of fiscal policy in reversing widening inequality in developing Asia. It recognizes that, as emerging demographic and environmental challenges are expected to compete for public resources in the years ahead, regional governments will need to explore options for mobilizing more revenue as they build equity objectives into their fiscal plans.
Apr 2014EconomyBooks
Together We Deliver: 10 Stories from ADB-Supported Projects with Clear Development Impacts
Highlights successful Asian Development Bank projects across Asia and the Pacific that demonstrated development impacts, best practice, and innovation. A recurring theme of the projects is the partnerships among developing member countries, ADB, other organizations, and individuals.
Apr 2014Transport, Regional Cooperation, EnergyBooks
Regulatory Assessment Toolkit: A Practical Methodology for Assessing Regulation on Trade and Investment in Services
Provides guidance on how to assess and reform the regulatory policies of service trade industries. The toolkit can help government officials evaluate whether their regulatory framework addresses market failures, achieves public interest goals in an efficient manner, and promotes the development of an efficient domestic services market.
(Martin Molinuevo and Sebastian Sáez / WB)
Mar 2014Trade PolicyBooks
Managing for Development Results: Rail Infrastructure Tariffs - Enabling Private Sector Development in Mongolia’s Railway Sector
Examines the system of tariffs in Mongolia for the use of railway infrastructure that is needed to enable liberalization of the freight market.
Mar 2014TransportResearch and reports
“At the Border” and “Behind the Border”: Integrated Trade Facilitation—Reforms and Implementation | РУССКИЙ
Government officials and private sector representatives from CAREC countries and elsewhere exchanged information about new methods and technologies concerning border management, customs control, and trade facilitation. This report summarizes the knowledge they shared and gained.
Mar 2014Transport, Trade FacilitationCAREC Publications
CAREC Transport and Trade Facilitation Strategy 2020 | РУССКИЙ
The Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) Transport and Trade Facilitation Strategy (TTFS) was refined to account for changes in the CAREC Program since 2008, particularly expanded membership and the new strategic framework (CAREC 2020). The refined strategy also reflects lessons learned during the initial phase of implementation, aiming to more efficiently and comprehensively achieve the goals of establishing competitive corridors; facilitating the movement of goods and people through these corridors; and providing sustainable, safe, and user-friendly transport and trade networks.
Feb 2014Transport, Trade FacilitationCAREC Publications
Unstoppable: The Hairatan to Mazar-e-Sharif Railway Project Performance-Based Operation and Maintenance Contract
The first railway project of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in Afghanistan has established a northern trade route, which is vital to the country’s reconstruction. The project’s sustained operational achievement can be largely attributed to a new tool used by ADB: the performance-based operation and maintenance contract.
Feb 2014TransportOthers
CAREC in Tajikistan: Building a Global Future | РУССКИЙ
Tajikistan is committed to expanding mutually beneficial economic cooperation with all countries and has actively participated in the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) Program since 1998. CAREC seeks to boost the country’s prosperity by increasing access to trade and transport services and supporting the expansion of the energy sector.
Jan 2014Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
Diversified development: Making the most of natural resources in Eurasia
Studies economic development in the twelve countries of Eurasia, where six countries are rich in natural resources: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russia, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan, and the other six countries are not: Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kyrgyz Republic, Moldova, and Tajikistan.
(Indermit Gill, Ivailo Izvorski, Ivailo, Willem van Eeghen, and Donato De Rosa / WB)
Jan 2014EconomyResearch and reports
Toward a Sustainability Appraisal Framework for Transport
The proposed Sustainable Transport Appraisal Rating (STAR) is a tool for assessing the sustainability of Asian Development Bank (ADB) transport projects and monitoring changes in the portfolio. It is intended to serve as a tool to design more sustainable transport projects and also developed as a contribution to the emerging common assessment framework of the eight multilateral development banks.
Jan 2014TransportWorking papers
Economic Corridor Development for Inclusive Asian Regional Integration: Modeling Approach to Economic Corridors
Looks at the experience of economic corridor development from across the world, including successful economic corridor developments in the European Union and South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation (SASEC) regions. In these cases, detailed models were constructed to assess the economic impact of corridor investments, leading to a framework for evidence-based policy analysis.
Jan 2014EconomyBooks
World Economic Outlook (WEO) Update: Is the Tide Rising? | РУССКИЙ | 中文
Projects global growth to be slightly higher in 2014, at around 3.7%, rising to 3.9% in 2015, a broadly unchanged outlook from the October 2013 WEO. But downward revisions to growth forecasts in some economies highlight continued fragilities, and downside risks remain.
Jan 2014EconomyResearch and reports
Energy Access and Energy Security in Asia and the Pacific
Provides an in-depth analysis on the current state of energy poverty in Asia and the prospects and prescriptions for advancing energy affordability and access.
(Benjamin K. Sovacool / ADB)
Dec 2013EnergyWorking papers
Maximizing Access to Energy for the Poor in Developing Asia
Highlights recent and ongoing projects that help ADB reduce “energy poverty” through focused efforts and innovative solutions.
Dec 2013EnergyOthers
Regional Economic Outlook: Caucasus and Central Asia | РУССКИЙ
Economic activity in the region is expected to continue expanding at a fast clip. Growth is driven by a recovery in the hydrocarbon sector and firm growth in domestic demand. The positive near-term outlook is also an opportunity to strengthen policy frameworks and set in motion a process of structural transformation into dynamic emerging economies.
Nov 2013EconomyResearch and reports
Asian Development Outlook 2013 Update: Governance and Public Service Delivery
Presents an analysis of developing Asia’s recent economic performance plus its prospects for the next 2 years. This update shows whether these forecasts were met, explaining divergence between forecasts and the actual outturn, and firms the forecasts for the next 18 months or so.
Oct 2013EconomyBooks
Energy Outlook for Asia and the Pacific
Attempts to identify policy, social, infrastructure, and technology issues that must be addressed to meet the future energy needs of Asian Development Bank members in Asia and the Pacific.
Oct 2013EnergyBooks
Report to the Government of Kazakhstan: Policies for Industrial and Service Diversification in Asia in the 21st Century
Analyzes the degree of diversification of Kazakhstan’s economy during the last 15 years. In 2010, Kazakhstan exported fewer products with comparative advantage than it did one decade ago. (ADB)
Oct 2013EconomyResearch and Reports
Economics of Climate Change in East Asia
Examines how strategies for adapting to climate change up to 2050 can be combined with measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in East Asia. The study includes the People's Republic of China, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Mongolia.
Oct 2013EnergyBooks
Tajikistan: 15 Years of Partnership with the Asian Development Bank
Highlights how ADB operations have helped Tajikistan reduce isolation, increase communication, broaden access to electricity, improve social services, and create jobs.
Oct 2013Regional CooperationResearch and reports
CAREC Development Effectiveness Review 2012: Implementing CAREC 2020 – Vision and Action (Brochure) | РУССКИЙ
A snapshot of the CAREC Program's progress in 2012.
Oct 2013Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
Kazakhstan: Solid Growth, Unsettled Global Environment
Analyzes Kazakhstan's economic performance and integration into the global economy.
(World Bank)
Sep 2013EconomyResearch and reports
CAREC Development Effectiveness Review 2012: Implementing CAREC 2020 – Vision and Action | РУССКИЙ
This CAREC DeFR is the fourth annual consolidated picture of progress made by country and multilateral institution partners of CAREC toward economic development through regional cooperation. It measures the performance of CAREC projects and initiatives in transport, trade, and energy during 2012; highlights achievements; identifies areas for improvement; and proposes actions to meet emerging challenges and assist in strategic decision making.
Sep 2013Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
CAREC Corridor Performance Measurement and Monitoring Annual Report 2012 | РУССКИЙ
The report provides valuable statistical data to evaluate freight flows and costs along the six CAREC transport corridors. Adopted in 2007 as part of CAREC’s Transport and Trade Facilitation Strategy, CPMM supports policy reforms to improve transport links and facilitate trade between CAREC member countries.
Aug 2013Trade Facilitation, TransportCAREC Publications
Mapping EU Development Aid to Central Asia
Provides an overview of European Union (EU) aid to Central Asia and briefly describes funding instruments and regional and national EU allocations in the region.
(Europe–Central Asia Monitoring)
Jul 2013EconomyOthers
What is Economic Corridor Development and What Can It Achieve in Asia’s Subregions?
Contains case studies by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) indicating benchmarks on characteristics of economic corridors. Expounds on development and regional integration challenges along economic corridors and the dynamics of economic corridor development.
Jul 2013Transport, EnergyWorking Papers
Tajikistan's Winter Energy Crisis
Explores a range of supply and demand alternatives (e.g., thermal, run-of-river hydro, other renewables, energy efficiency and demand management) to assist the Government of Tajikistan in exploring ways to overcome electricity shortages due to rising demand for electricity.
(World Bank)
Jul 2013EnergyResearch and reports
Same Energy, More Power: Accelerating Energy Efficiency in Asia
Examines prospects for the Asian Development Bank (ADB) to ramp up efforts in the region for greater utilization of demand-side energy efficiency. The report further identifies global and regional trends that are driving Asia’s energy demand and the resulting policy and regulatory environment for energy efficiency.
Jun 2013EnergyResearch and reports
Central Asia 2030
Looks into prospects for the development of Central Asia as a region and expectations regarding the development of Central Asian societies.
(Europe–Central Asia Monitoring)
Jun 2013EconomyOthers
Regional Economic Outlook Update 2013: Caucasus and Central Asia
States that countries across the region should reinvigorate their reform efforts to address longstanding structural issues, with a view to improving governance, building an investor-friendly environment, developing a more inclusive financial system, and fostering regional trade and finance integration.
May 2013EconomyResearch and reports
Modernizing Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures to Facilitate Trade in Agricultural and Food Products
Recommends a set of coordinated measures designed to improve and reduce delays in handling perishable goods in transit (and particularly at border -crossing points), ensure that food is safe for consumers, and prevent the spread of pests and diseases among animals and plants. The study is based on an examination of sanitary and phytosanitary measures as applied in the People’s Republic of China, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Mongolia, and Uzbekistan.
May 2013Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Guidelines for Climate Proofing Investment in the Energy Sector
Provides a step-by-step methodological approach to help project teams assess and incorporate climate change adaptation measures into energy investment projects.
May 2013EnergyBooks
Trade policy barriers: an obstacle to export diversification in Eurasia
Analyzes trade policy barriers in Eurasia, East Asia and the Pacific, and the European Union using the most recent data from sources including the World Trade Organization, the United Nations, and the World Bank.
(World Bank)
May 2013Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Asian Development Outlook 2013: Asia’s Energy Challenge
Features a special chapter on Asia's energy challenges, stating. that the region needs an ample supply of clean, affordable energy to continue its rapid growth in the coming decades. To achieve energy security, developing Asia must actively contain its rising demand, aggressively explore new supply sources and technology, and progressively integrate regional energy markets and infrastructure. (ADB)
Apr 2013EconomyBooks
Growing Green: The Economic Benefits of Climate Action
Identifies actions governments in Central Asian countries can take to reduce carbon footprints in their economies. To realize the benefits, policy makers need to quickly prioritize three areas: use energy much more efficiently, gradually move to cleaner energy sources, and increase carbon capture in soils and forests.
(World Bank)
Apr 2013EnergyResearch and reports
Regional Cooperation and Integration: Experiences in Asia and the Pacific
This publication compiles presentations, discussions, and speeches delivered at the Conference on Regional Cooperation and Integration: Experiences in Asia and the Pacific in Kunming on 26-27 March 2012. The conference reviewed the status of regional cooperation and integration (RCI) across Asia, shared experiences among RCI programs, and discussed ways to deepen and widen the scope of RCI in Asia and the Pacific.
Mar 2013Regional CooperationResearch and reports
Outward Foreign Direct Investment and Domestic Investment: The Case of Developing Countries
This study empirically examines the effects of outward foreign direct investment (FDI) on domestic investment in developing countries. Using data from 121 developing and transition economies over the period 1990-2010, the results suggest that FDI outflows negatively impact the rate of domestic investment.
(Ali Al-sadiq / IMF)
Feb 2013EconomyWorking papers
World Economic Outlook Update: Gradual Upturn in Global Growth during 2013
This edition projects global growth to increase during 2013, as the factors underlying soft global activity are expected to subside. However, this upturn is projected to be more gradual than in the October 2012 World Economic Outlook projections.
Jan 2013EconomyResearch and reports
Uncertainty and Trade Agreements
This paper explores the potential gains that a trade agreement can provide by regulating trade-policy uncertainty, in addition to the more standard gains from reducing the mean levels of trade barriers.
(Nuno Limao and Giovanni Maggi / NBER)
Jan 2013Trade PolicyWorking papers
How Much Do Tariffs Matter? Evidence from the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia
This paper provides an empirical analysis of the early impact of the formation of the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and the Russian Federation, and associated changes in import schedules on the structure of imports of the three member countries.
(Asel Isakova, Zsoka Koczan, and Alexander Plekhanov / EBRD)
Jan 2013Trade FacilitationWorking papers
Globalizing Central Asia: Geopolitics and the Challenges of Economic Development
Central Asia, as it emerges from a political and economic system that was closed until the end of the twentieth century, is a textbook case for globalization. This book traces the region's entry into the highly competitive global arena, not only through state interaction with numerous external players, but also in geo-economic terms.
(Marlene Laruelle and Sebastien Peyrouse / M.E. Sharpe)
Jan 2013EconomyBooks
Economic Impact of Eurozone Sovereign Debt Crisis on Developing Asia
The euro crisis will undoubtedly influence Asia's short-term macroeconomic outlook. The key question, however, is how big the impact will be. This paper tries to answer this by examining both the trade and financial channels of crisis transmission.
(Minsoo Lee, Donghyun Park, Arnelyn Abdon, and Gemma Estrada / ADB)
Jan 2013Economy, FinanceWorking papers
Performance-based Routine Maintenance of Rural Roads by Maintenance Groups: Manual for Maintenance Groups
This manual aims to assist maintenance groups in Yunnan Province, People’s Republic of China, in organizing and carrying out the routine maintenance of unpaved rural roads. It guides the maintenance groups at the operational level in the use of appropriate tools and techniques in their work and teaches group members technical and managerial skills for routine maintenance of rural roads.
Dec 2012Transport, PovertyOthers
Performance-based Routine Maintenance of Rural Roads by Maintenance Groups: Guide for Communications Bureaus
This guide aims to assist communications bureaus in Yunnan Province, People’s Republic of China, in organizing and managing the routine maintenance of unpaved rural roads by maintenance groups. It describes the deterioration process of rural roads and the need for a proper system of routine maintenance to reduce costs and improve road conditions. It explains how to organize, train, and contract maintenance groups for routine maintenance of rural roads, based on the experience gained from the two pilot projects carried out in Dehong Prefecture.
Dec 2012Transport, PovertyOthers
Transition Report 2012: Integration Across Borders
This report analyzes the importance of economic integration, focusing specifically on the changing financial landscape in the eurozone single currency bloc and the creation of new pan-European institutions. It also assesses the role of trade integration.
Nov 2012Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Finishing the Job: Jump-Start Afghanistan's Economy - A Handbook of Projects
This paper identifies high-priority initiatives to help stabilize Afghanistan's economy after the military pullout of the United States and NATO. These initiatives include the establishment of key border crossings to expedite the processing of exports, the creation of free economic zones, and the full implementation of a trade agreement with Pakistan.
(S. Frederick Starr, Adib Farhadi / Central Asia-Caucasus Institute)
Nov 2012Economy, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Tajikistan's Winter Energy Crisis: Electricity Supply and Demand Alternatives
This study aims to assist the Government of Tajikistan in finding ways to overcome the country's frequent power shortages, and to establish sound structures and procedures for meeting the growing domestic electricity demand.
(Daryl Fields, Artur Kochnakyan, Gary Stuggins, John Besant-Jones / World Bank)
Nov 2012EnergyWorking papers
Afghanistan Diagnostics Trade Integration Study
This Diagnostics Trade Integration Study report is intended to identify concrete policy actions in three areas of endeavor: lowering the transaction costs of trade, increasing Afghanistan's competitiveness in world markets, and providing an analytical foundation for Afghanistan's national trade strategy.
(World Bank)
Nov 2012Trade FacilitationResearch and Reports
Regional Economic Outlook: Middle East and Central Asia (November 2012)
The economic outlook for the Caucasus and Central Asia remains favorable, reflecting high oil prices that are benefiting oil and gas exporters, supportive commodity prices and remittance inflows benefiting oil and gas importers, and, for both groups, moderate direct exposure to Europe. The positive outlook provides an opportunity to strengthen policy buffers to prepare for any downside risks.
Nov 2012Economy, EnergyResearch and reports
Transport Efficiency through Logistics Development: Policy Study
The report describes the state of transport and logistics development in the People’s Republic of China (PRC). Based on the results of the survey and analysis of best practices in different countries, the study makes various policy recommendations for strengthening the approach to the development of logistics in the PRC.
Oct 2012TransportResearch and reports
World Development Report 2013: Jobs
This edition stresses the role of strong private sector-led growth in creating jobs and outlines how jobs that do the most for development can spur a virtuous cycle. The report finds that poverty falls as people work their way out of hardship and as jobs empower women to invest more in their children. Efficiency increases as workers get better at what they do, as more productive jobs appear, and as less productive ones disappear.
(World Bank)
Oct 2012Economy, PovertyBooks
The New Silk Road and the Northern Distribution Network: A Golden Road to Central Asian Trade Reform?
This paper provides a constructive assessment of the challenges confronting the efforts to develop the Northern Distribution Network as the basis for a new "Silk Road."
(Graham Lee / Open Society Foundations)
Oct 2012Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
World Economic Outlook October 2012: Coping with High Debt and Sluggish Growth
This edition assesses the prospects for the global recovery in light of such risks as the ongoing euro area crisis and the "fiscal cliff" facing policy makers of the United States. Reducing the risks to the medium-term outlook implies reducing public debt in the major advanced economies.
Oct 2012EconomyResearch and reports
Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation: Power Sector Regional Master Plan
The master plan identifies projects that will improve energy security, energy efficiency, and energy trade between Afghanistan and the four Central Asian countries of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. It studies the integrated development of the regional power system and looks for long-term solutions to balance demand and supply.
Oct 2012Energy, Regional CooperationResearch and reports
10 Things the WTO Can Do
This booklet explains briefly the complex and dynamic nature of trade and the World Trade Organization's (WTO) trade rules. It highlights benefits of the trading system.
(World Trade Organization)
Sep 2012Trade PolicyOthers
Kyrgyz Republic: Evolving Transition to a Market Economy (Country Assistance Program Evaluation)
This is an evaluation of the country strategies and programs of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in support of the Kyrgyz Republic during 1994-2010. ADB programs helped to improve the country’s infrastructure, connectivity, governance, capacity to deliver public services, and ability to respond to natural disasters.
Aug 2012Economy, TransportResearch and reports
CAREC Corridor Performance Measurement and Monitoring Annual Report 2011 | РУССКИЙ | 中文
This report is based on trip samples submitted by national transport associations from CAREC member countries that include performance metrics on cargo transport in the region.
Aug 2012Transport, Trade FacilitationCAREC Publications
World Economic Outlook 2012 Update: New Setbacks, Further Policy Action Needed | РУССКИЙ | 中文
The weakening global recovery, the ratcheting up of the financial market in the euro area, and lower-than-forecast growth of major emerging market economies could result in a minor setback to the global outlook. Global growth at 3.5% in 2012 and 3.9% in 2013 is marginally lower than in the April 2012 World Economic Outlook.
Jul 2012EconomyResearch and reports
Shifting Comparative Advantages in Tajikistan: Implications for Growth Strategy
The future development of the Tajik economy will be shaped by its comparative advantage on world markets. Exploiting comparative advantage enables an economy to reap gains from trade. Tajikistan’s most important comparative advantage is its hydropower potential, which is far larger than the economy’s domestic requirements.
(Souleymane Coulibaly / World Bank)
Jul 2012Energy, EconomyWorking papers
Asian Economic Integration Monitor (July 2012)
This report is a semi-annual review of Asia’s regional economic cooperation and integration. It covers 48 regional member countries of the Asian Development Bank. This issue includes a special section—Regional Integration: A Balanced View.
Jul 2012Regional CooperationResearch and reports
Asian Development Outlook 2012 Supplement
This supplement focuses on the theme Sluggish Global Economy Weighs on Asia’s Growth. It updates the economic forecasts of the Asian Development Outlook 2012 for regional economies of developing Asia.
Jul 2012EconomyOthers
Europe and Central Asia Balancing Act: Cutting Subsidies, Protecting Affordability, and Investing in the Energy Sector in Eastern Europe and Central Asian Region
This report assesses, at the micro-level for the whole region, the distributional impact of raising energy tariffs to cost-recovery levels and to simulate policy options to cushion these impacts.
(World Bank)
Jun 2012EnergyWorking papers
Geothermal Handbook: Planning and Financing Power Generation
This handbook is dedicated to geothermal energy as a source of electric power for developing countries. Many developing countries are endowed with substantial geothermal resources that could be more actively put to use.
(Magnus Gehringer, Victor Loksha / World Bank)
Jun 2012EnergyResearch and reports
Evaluating the Environment for Public-Private Partnerships in Asia-Pacific: The 2011 Infrascope
This document comprises a summary and analysis of a benchmark index and learning tool that assesses the capacity of countries in the Asia–Pacific region to carry out sustainable public–private infrastructure partnerships, as of June 2011. The study scores aspects of the regulatory and institutional frameworks, project experience and success, the investment climate, and the financial facilities in 11 developing countries (including CAREC member countries People's Republic of China, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and Pakistan); in four benchmark countries (Australia, Japan, Republic of Korea, United Kingdom; and in India’s state of Gujarat.
(Economist Intelligence Unit / ADB)
May 2012Transport, Energy, Private SectorResearch and reports
Connecting to Compete 2012: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy
This third edition reports on the Logistics Performance Index (LPI) and its six component indicators. The LPI measures logistics efficiency, now widely recognized as vital for trade and growth. A country’s ability to trade globally depends on its traders’ access to global freight and logistics networks; and the efficiency of a country’s supply chain (in cost, time, and reliability) depends on specific features of its domestic economy (logistics performance).
(Jean-Francois Arvis, Monica Alina Mustra, Lauri Ojala, Ben Shepherd, and Daniel Saslavsky / World Bank)
May 2012Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Measuring Commodity-Level Trade Costs in Asia: The Basis for Effective Trade Facilitation Policies in the Region
This paper suggests that the use of trade statistics calculated in conjunction with “Doing Business” data is helpful in understanding overall as well as detailed commodity-level trade costs. The two can be regarded as alternative indicators of trade efficiency, because both indicators improve when the trade transaction is streamlined. By using trade statistics, long-term trade costs and trade costs for each commodity group can be computed.
(Shintaro Hamanaka and Romana Domingo / ADB)
Apr 2012Trade FacilitationWorking papers
Collaborative Border Management: A New Approach to an Old Problem
This issue of Economic Premise outlines a collaborative border management model which provides a comprehensive approach to tackling the issue of border clearance procedures. The model offers the potential to significantly enhance trade facilitation outcomes for developing countries.
(Gerard McLinden / World Bank)
Apr 2012Trade FacilitationBriefs and notes
Global Financial Stability Report: The Quest for Lasting Stability (April 2012) | РУССКИЙ | 中文
The report assesses changes in risks to financial stability over the past 6 months, focusing on sovereign vulnerabilities, risks stemming from private sector deleveraging, and assessing the continued resilience of emerging markets. The report probes the implications of recent reforms in the financial system for market perception of safe assets, and investigates the growing public and private costs of increased longevity risk from aging populations (Executive Summary in Russian and Chinese).
Apr 2012FinanceBooks
Impact of Services Liberalization on Industry Productivity, Exports and Development: Six Empirical Studies in the Transition Economies
This paper summarizes six of the seven studies that investigate the impact of services liberalization on productivity, focusing on services reform in the transition economies of Europe and Central Asia. The studies contribute to the growing empirical literature establishing that liberalization of barriers against service providers can make an important contribution to increasing total factor productivity, exports and growth in the economy.
(David Tarr / World Bank Institute)
Apr 2012Trade PolicyWorking papers
World Economic Outlook 2012: Growth Resuming, Dangers Remain | РУССКИЙ | 中文
The global economy has gradually strengthened after a major setback during 2011. The threat of a sharp global slowdown eased with improved activity in the United States and better policies in the euro area. (Foreword and Executive Summary are in Chinese.)
Apr 2012EconomyResearch and reports
Regional Economic Outlook 2012 Update: Caucasus and Central Asia Set for Solid Growth, but Global Risks Loom Large | РУССКИЙ | 中文
This broadly positive outlook presents an opportunity for Caucasus and Central Asian policy makers to rebuild policy buffers, prepare for possible downside risks, and foster an inclusive growth agenda.
Apr 2012EconomyResearch and reports
Asian Development Outlook 2012: Confronting Rising Inequality in Asia
The report sees that the greatest risk to the outlook is the uncertainty surrounding the resolution of sovereign debt problems in the eurozone. The theme chapter looks at widening inequality: in spite of developing Asia’s great success in raising living standards and reducing poverty, swelling income disparities threaten to undermine the pace of progress.
Apr 2012Economy, PovertyBooks
International Trade in Natural Resources: Practice and Policy
Natural resources account for 20% of world trade and dominate the exports of many countries. Policy is used to manipulate both international and domestic prices of resources, yet this policy is largely outside the disciplines of the World Trade Organization. The instruments used include export taxes, price controls, production quotas, and domestic producer and consumer taxes. This paper reviews the literature and argues that the policy equilibrium is inefficient. This inefficiency is exacerbated by market failure in long-run contracts for exploration and development of natural resources.
(Michele Ruta and Anthony J. Venables / World Trade Organization)
Mar 2012Trade FacilitationWorking papers
Aid for Trade in Asia and the Pacific: Its Role in Trade-Driven Growth
This report of the Regional Technical Group attempts to provide an overview of the experience of trade and foreign direct investment–driven growth and Aid for Trade in Asia the Pacific in order to (i) prompt new ways of gauging the region’s trade performance and capacity, (ii) galvanize the need for more Aid for Trade in the region, and (iii) offer policy lessons on optimal ways to operationalize projects on the ground.
Mar 2012Trade Facilitation, Economy, Private Sector, PovertyResearch and reports
Global Food Price Inflation and Policy Responses in Central Asia
This paper examines the implications of elevated global food prices for inflation in Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. The findings suggest that global food inflation has significant short-run effects that build over time. Inflation outcomes simulated under alternative global wheat price assumptions underscore these vulnerabilities, and suggest that sustained administrative measures are unlikely to prove effective.
(A.J. Al-Eyd, David Amaglobeli, Bahrom Shukurov, Mariusz A. Sumlinski / IMF)
Mar 2012EconomyWorking papers
BRIC's Philosophies for Development Financing and Their Implications for LICs
Flows of development financing from the BRICs (Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, and the People’s Republic of China) to low-income countries (LICs) have surged in recent years. BRICs (excluding the Russian Federation) view their financing as primarily based on the principles of South-South cooperation, focusing on mutual benefits without attachment of policy conditionality. This paper provides an overview of the philosophies and modalities of BRIC financing and examines their implications for LIC economies and future LIC-BRIC engagement.
(Nkunde Mwase, Yang Yongzheng / IMF)
Mar 2012Regional Cooperation, EconomyWorking papers
CAREC 2020: A Strategic Framework for the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Program 2011–2020 | РУССКИЙ
CAREC 2020 provides the strategic framework for the Program’s next 10 years. It reflects the required enhancements in the Comprehensive Action Plan to move the Program toward its vision of Good Partners, Good Neighbors, and Good Prospects.
Feb 2012Regional Cooperation, Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
Handbook of Best Practices at Border Crossings - A Transport and Trade Facilitation Perspective | РУССКИЙ
This reference document is a practical guide for government agencies and private sector bodies that operate border-crossing points. It aims to raise awareness of the range of instruments to develop and implement better trade, transport, border and customs policies. Drawing upon operational evidence and case studies, it offers best practices from both public and private perspectives. The publication primarily focuses on road border crossing points, but also touches on rail and sea crossings.
Feb 2012Transport, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Fast and Focused – Building China’s Railways | 中文
This note reports on how the People’s Republic of China was able to build an astonishing number of large and complex railway projects under its mid and long-term railway development plan. The paper argues that three factors dominate: the concentration of responsibility, power, and access to resources in one organization; strong technical capacity and processes; and a program effect that delivers economies of standardization and scale. Published in China Transport Topics No. 3.
(John Scales, Jitendra Sondhi, and Paul Amos / World Bank)
Feb 2012TransportBriefs and notes
Accelerating Equitable Achievement of the MDGs: Closing Gaps in Health and Nutrition Outcomes
The report focuses on disparities in Millennium Development Goal (MDG) achievement within and between countries, to address major bottlenecks holding back MDG progress in Asia and the Pacific. Even countries making rapid economic progress continue to lose shocking numbers of children before their fifth birthdays as well as thousands of mothers who die unnecessarily during childbirth.
Feb 2012Economy, PovertyBooks
Mongolia: Road Sector Development to 2016
This study looks into road sector’s financial dimension, the techniques and processes followed for road maintenance and construction, and the role of human resources management and education. It tries to understand why sector performance improvement has been slow. Reflecting on lessons from international experience, it outlines a range of policy options for decision makers and proposes an agenda until 2016.
Feb 2012TransportResearch and reports
World Economic Outlook Update: Recovery Stalls, Downside Risks Intensify | РУССКИЙ | 中文
Global output is projected to expand by 3.25% in 2012, a downward revision of about 0.75 percentage points relative to the September 2011 World Economic Outlook. The global recovery is threatened by intensifying strains in the euro area and fragilities everywhere.
Jan 2012EconomyResearch and reports
Assessment of Costs and Benefits of the Customs Union for Kazakhstan
This paper, the first report under the Study of International Practice of Integration/Customs Unions, presents three possible outcomes for Kazakhstan when it entered into a customs union with Belarus and the Russian Federation. It attempts to assess the probability of success that the customs union will have with the reduction of trade facilitation costs and non-tariff barriers.
(World Bank)
Jan 2012Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Trade Corridor Management Toolkit: Overview
This toolkit is designed as a comprehensive and holistic tool to help improve the performance of trade and transport corridors. It will provide a menu-based reference for the Bank and other agencies involved in corridor‐based projects. Task managers and policy makers will be able to access in a single place, a suite of instruments to assess, improve and manage corridor performance
(Charles Kunaka, Robin Carruthers, Jonathan Stevens / World Bank)
Jan 2012Transport, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Indicators for the Asian Development Bank Energy Sector Operations (2005–2010)
This is a report of indicators for ADB’s energy sector operations. Databases of energy projects and technical assistance projects approved during 2005–2010 have been created. The project database includes relevant information from 99 energy sector projects and 35 non-energy sector projects with clean energy components.
Jan 2012EnergyResearch and reports
Managing Mongolia's Resource Boom
With two very large mining projects expected to reach full production this decade, Mongolia is entering a commodity boom. This paper surveys what Mongolia can do, building on reform steps it has already taken, to avoid a "resource trap."
(Asel Isakova, Alexander Plekhanov, and Jeromin Zettelmeyer / EBRD)
Jan 2012EconomyWorking papers
Eurasian Integration Yearbook 2012
This annual publication focuses on the theoretical and practical aspects of Eurasian integration. The 2012 edition highlights the expansion of the Customs Union into the Single Economic Space, whose primary goal will be to promote the free movement of goods, capital, services, and people. This edition also has articles on economic cooperation in air transport, electric power, and hydropower and water management.
(Evgeny Vinokurov, ed. / Eurasian Development Bank)
2012Regional Cooperation, Trade FacilitationBooks
A Practical Guide to Trade Policy Analysis
This publication outlines the major concepts of trade policy analysis and contains practical guidance on how to apply them to concrete policy questions. It is aimed at government experts engaged in trade negotiations, as well as students and researchers involved in trade-related study or research.
(World Trade Organization and United Nations Conference on Trade and Development)
2012Trade PolicyOthers
International Trade Statistics 2012
This publication presents a comprehensive overview of the latest developments in world trade. It covers the details of merchandise trade by product and trade in commercial services.
(World Trade Organization)
2012Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Trade Facilitation Terms: An English-Russian Glossary (Revised second edition)
This revised second edition of the glossary is a collaborative work of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the Secretariat of the Commission of the Customs Union. This edition is expected to be the new standard reference on trade facilitation terms.
2012Trade FacilitationBooks
Trade Profiles 2012
This publication provides a country-by-country breakdown of trade flows and trade policy measures for WTO members and countries seeking to join the WTO. The data provided for each country includes basic economic indicators, trade policy indicators, merchandise trade flows, commercial trade flows, and industrial property indicators.
(World Trade Organization)
2012Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyResearch and reports
World Tariff Profiles 2012
This publication provides information on market access. The listing of the tariffs imposed by each WTO member on its imports is complemented with an analysis of the market access conditions it faces in its major export markets.
(World Trade Organization, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, and International Trade Centre)
2012Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyResearch and reports
World Trade Report 2012 - Trade and Public Policies: A closer look at non-tariff measures in the 21st century
The report reveals how the expansion of global production chains, climate change, and the growing importance of consumer concerns in richer countries affect the use of non-tariff measures.
(World Trade Organization)
2012Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Spending on Public Infrastructure: A Practitioner's Guide
This paper provides a methodological tool to support the collection and preparation of standardized, comprehensive data regarding public spending on infrastructure services that can be rigorously compared across countries. Infrastructure is defined to cover six sectors: irrigation, energy (primarily power), transport, communication, wastewater management, and water supply.
(Cecilia Briceno-Garmendia, Afua Sarkodie / World Bank)
Dec 2011Energy, Transport, EconomyWorking papers
[People's Republic of] China and the World Trading System
This paper looks at how to anchor the People's Republic of China (PRC) more fully into the multilateral trading system, and it sees two ways. The first is a new negotiating agenda that will include major issues of interest to the PRC and its trading partners. The second is new restraints on bilateralism and regionalism that will help preserve incentives for maintaining the current broadly non-discriminatory trading order.
(Aaditya Mattoo, Arvind Subramanian / World Bank)
Dec 2011Trade PolicyWorking papers
The Time Cost of Documents to Trade
This paper analyzes the relationship between the number of documents required to export and import and the time it takes to complete all procedures to trade. It shows that an increase in the number of documents required for export and import tends to increase the time cost of shipments.
(Mohammad Amin / World Bank)
Dec 2011Trade FacilitationWorking papers
The New Silk Road: Ten Years of the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Program
This commemorative book celebrates 10 years of productive collaboration under the CAREC Program. Under the Program, member countries have made significant gains in regional transport, energy infrastructure, and trade facilitation and policy. The spirit of trust and confidence that has evolved through the years among good neighbors and good partners has led to better prospects for all.
Dec 2011Regional Cooperation, Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyCAREC Publications
Forecasting Growth in Eastern Europe and Central Asia
This paper describes the main quantitative modeling techniques that have informed EBRD growth projections since 2009. The paper describes how bridge models use high-frequency data and the generalized dynamic factor model uses a vast body of cross-country data to forecast growth.
(Franziska Ohnsorge and Yevgeniya Korniyenko / EBRD)
Dec 2011EconomyWorking papers
Impact Evaluation of Trade Interventions: Paving the Way
The focus of trade policy has shifted in recent years from economy-wide reductions in tariffs and trade restrictions toward targeted interventions to facilitate trade and promote exports. Most of these latter interventions are based on the new mantra of "aid-for-trade" rather than on hard evidence about what works and what does not. This paper discusses examples of impact evaluation using a range of methods (experimental and non-experimental), highlighting the particular issues and caveats arising in a trade context, and the valuable lessons that are already being learned.
(Olivier Cadot, Ana M. Fernandes, Julien Gourdon, Aaditya Mattoo / World Bank)
Nov 2011Trade PolicyWorking papers
Empowering Women through Rural Infrastructure
This publication describes the outcomes of a pilot project, Community-Based Rural Road Maintenance by Women Ethnic Minority Groups in Western Yunnan. The project sought to involve women and other vulnerable populations (including indigenous minorities) in rural road maintenance projects, both to undertake badly needed improvements in rural roads, and to create employment opportunities for them.
Nov 2011Transport, PovertyResearch and reports
Doing Business 2012: Doing Business in a More Transparent World
This edition assesses regulations affecting domestic firms in 183 economies and ranks the economies in 10 areas of business regulation, such as starting a business, resolving insolvency and trading across borders. This year’s data cover regulations measured from June 2010 through May 2011. The report rankings on ease of doing business have expanded to include indicators on accessing electricity.
(IFC and World Bank)
Oct 2011Economy, Finance, Private SectorResearch and reports
Between-Country Disparities in MDGs: The Asia and Pacific Region
This paper explores disparities in Millennium Development Goals among countries in the Asia and Pacific region, with a special emphasis on health Millennium Development Goals. It provides estimates on the extent of these disparities and depicts their trends. More importantly, sources or causes of the disparities are quantified and policy implications are discussed.
(Guanghua Wan and Yuan Zhang / ADB)
Oct 2011Economy, PovertyWorking papers
Regional Economic Outlook: Middle East and Central Asia (October 2011)
The economic outlook in the Caucasus and Central Asia is broadly positive. Exports and remittances are continuing to grow solidly, helping the recovery gain firm momentum. At the same time, uncertainties over the robustness of the global recovery constitute a downside risk to the growth outlook. Key challenges facing the region over the medium term are to create jobs and foster high and inclusive growth.
Oct 2011EconomyResearch and reports
World Development Report 2012: Gender Equality and Development
This report finds that women's lives around the world have improved dramatically, but gaps remain in many areas. A conceptual framework is used to examine progress to date, and policy actions are recommended.
(World Bank)
Sep 2011Economy, PovertyBooks
World Economic Outlook September 2011: Slowing Growth, Rising Risks | РУССКИЙ | 中文
The global economy is in a dangerous new phase. Global activity has weakened and become more uneven, confidence has fallen sharply recently, and downside risks are growing. (Full text is in English and Russian. Foreword and Executive Summary are in Chinese.)
Sep 2011EconomyResearch and reports
Energy for All: Asia’s Night Skies Reveal Growth and Gaps in Electrification
The images in this brochure compare and contrast night sky views of Asia and the Pacific from 1992 and 2009—a 17-year span. As modern energy powers development and economic growth, the expansion of brightly lit areas and the increased brightness of existing areas show how access to electricity has increased across Asia and the Pacific. Conversely, there are areas that remain dark, despite the fact that they contain substantial populations.
Sep 2011EnergyOthers
Consolidation and Collaboration: Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Program’s Energy Policy in Tajikistan | РУССКИЙ
Energy is a priority of the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) Program. The region’s resources are abundant and varied but unevenly distributed, which offers great potential for cooperation. This brochure shows how collaboration among CAREC countries is the best route to tapping their vast energy resources.
Sep 2011EnergyOthers
Moving Goods Faster and Better: Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Program’s Transport and Trade Facilitation in Tajikistan | РУССКИЙ
The Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) Program may not yet be a household name in Tajikistan, but this brochure shows how it has definitely made a difference. CAREC has helped build the highways that bring goods from producer to household and create opportunities to reap and enjoy the benefits of the country’s strategic location.
Sep 2011Transport, Trade FacilitationOthers
Asian Development Outlook 2011 Update: Preparing for Demographic Transition
This update expects developing Asia to sustain its robust growth over the next 2 years, despite the tepid outlook for the United States, the eurozone, and Japan. The region will be buttressed by healthy domestic demand and buoyant intraregional trade. Managing inflation has to be a key focus for policy makers, to allow for inclusive growth.
Sep 2011Economy, PovertyBooks
Involving Central Asia in Afghanistan’s Future—What Can Europe Do?
This paper addresses the issue of involving the Central Asian states in a more constructive relationship with Afghanistan. It discusses the limitations of the current European Union involvement with border security, and the impact of the transit value of the region on the Central Asia–Afghanistan relationship. It also addresses ways the European Union can further foster economic cooperation, participation in building the regional cooperation architecture, and people-to-people exchanges.
(Marlene Laurelle / EU-Central Asia Monitoring)
Aug 2011Regional CooperationBriefs and notes
Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2011: Toward Higher Quality Employment in Asia
This publication is the flagship annual statistical data book of the Asian Development Bank. It presents the latest available economic, financial, social, environmental, and Millennium Development Goal indicators for regional members. The special chapter in this edition—Toward Higher Quality Employment in Asia—measures the quality of employment by the status of employment and/or the ratio of employment in the informal sector.
Aug 2011Economy, Regional CooperationBooks
Guidelines for Climate Proofing Investments in the Transport Sector: Road Infrastructure Projects
This publication aims to present a step-by-step methodological approach to assist project teams incorporate climate change adaptation measures into transport sector (road infrastructure) investment projects.
Aug 2011TransportOthers
World Trade Report 2011 - The WTO and preferential trade agreements: From co-existence to coherence
This edition describes the historical development of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) and the current landscape of agreements. It examines why PTAs are established, their economic effects, and the contents of the agreements themselves. Finally it considers the interaction between PTAs and the multilateral trading system.
(World Trade Organization)
Jul 2011Regional Cooperation, Trade PolicyResearch and reports
The Great Recession and Import Protection: The Role of Temporary Trade Barriers
This volume offers a collection of research that begins to fill a major information gap by providing empirical details of many of the important changes that took place under these trade policies (i.e., antidumping, safeguards, and countervailing duties) during 2008-2009.
(Chad P. Bown, ed / World Bank)
Jul 2011Trade PolicyBooks
Asia's Changing Role in World Trade: Prospects for South-South Trade Growth to 2030
This paper projects the world economy to 2030 to demonstrate the extent to which developing Asia's rapid economic growth is likely to (i) further shift the global industrial center of gravity away from the North Atlantic to Asia, (ii) increase the importance of Asia in world trade, and (iii) boost South-South trade. The South's share of world exports is projected to rise from 33% in 2004 to 55% in 2030–even higher if slower growth in the North is assumed, or if global trade is liberalized.
(Kym Anderson and Anna Strutt / ADB)
Jul 2011Trade PolicyWorking papers
Community-based Routine Maintenance of Roads by Women's Groups: Guide for Communication Bureaus | 中文
This guide describes how to implement a system of community-based rural road maintenance involving groups of women, specifically in Yunnan Province, People's Republic of China. It is part of a pilot project which aims to show that women can effectively participate in the maintenance of rural roads and to create employment opportunities and incomes for women.
Jul 2011Transport, PovertyOthers
Community-based Routine Maintenance of Roads by Women's Groups: Manual for Maintenance Groups | 中文
This manual is aimed at women's maintenance groups responsible for the routine maintenance of rural roads. It details the different activities to be carried out by the maintenance groups to keep the road in good condition by preventing damage and carrying out minor repairs. It explains the planning and organization of the work, as well as how county communications bureaus responsible for these roads contract the groups.
Jul 2011Transport, PovertyOthers
World Economic Outlook June 2011: Mild Slowdown of the Global Expansion and Increasing Risks | РУССКИЙ | 中文
Economic activity is slowing down temporarily, downside risks have increased again, the global expansion remains unbalanced, and growth in many advanced economies is still weak.
Jun 2011EconomyResearch and reports
Trade Expansion through Market Connection - The Central Asian Markets of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, and Tajikistan
As Central Asian countries cope with the effects of the global crisis, there is need to think strategically about how to strengthen their export competitiveness in the medium- to long-term. This report recommends that Central Asian countries build their export-diversification policies on three spatial levels: urban (leading city), area (city-hinterland), and regional (integration with regional markets).
(World Bank)
Jun 2011Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific 2011: Sustaining Dynamism and Inclusive Development
This edition explores ways the Asia-Pacific region can sustain dynamism and inclusive development in the medium term. It highlights the importance of greater connectivity in infrastructure and transport, and of more investment in the region’s human resources. It also stresses the need to expand and diversify the productive capacity of the region’s least developed countries in order to overcome their structural limitations and take advantage of opportunities arising from globalization.
May 2011Regional Cooperation, Economy, PovertyBooks
Is the EU-Central Asia Strategy Running Out of Steam?
The European Union’s (EU) Central Asia Strategy is approaching its fourth anniversary. Although progress has been made in building dialogue and in furthering engagement, the strategy’s limitations are increasingly obvious. This brief argues that the driving force of EU engagement should be based on a closer link between security and development. Engagement in this broad field should be underpinned by a values-based approach that seeks to promote more explicitly reform on human rights, rule of law, governance and democracy.
(Jos Boonstra, Michael Dennison / EU-Central Asia Monitoring)
May 2011Regional Cooperation, EconomyBriefs and notes
Asian Development Outlook 2011: South-South Economic Links
This edition focuses on two critical challenges of developing Asia to maintain its inclusive growth in the years ahead. First, the immediate challenge is responding to swelling inflation pressures, which can be complicated by subsequent capital inflows. Second, the region must explore and then foster new sources of growth. The strengthening of ties with developing countries, both in the region and beyond, has much potential.
Apr 2011Economy, Regional CooperationBooks
Global Monitoring Report 2011: Improving the Odds of Achieving the MDGs
This edition reports that two-thirds of developing countries are on track or close to meeting key targets for tackling extreme poverty and hunger. It examines country performance and reveals a diverse, and often hopeful, picture. With improved policies and faster growth, these countries can still achieve the targets in 2015 or soon after.
(World Bank)
Apr 2011Economy, PovertyBooks
World Development Report 2011: Conflict, Security, and Development
This edition examines the changing nature of violence in the 21st century, and underlines the negative impact of repeated cycles of violence on a country or region’s development prospects. It concludes that preventing violence and building peaceful states that respond to the aspirations of their citizens requires strong leadership and concerted national and international efforts.
(World Bank)
Apr 2011Economy, PovertyBooks
World Economic Outlook 2011: Tensions from the Two-Speed Recovery—Unemployment, Commodities, and Capital Flows | РУССКИЙ | 中文
This edition discusses the challenge for most emerging market economies on how to avoid overheating in the face of closing output gaps and higher capital flows. It suggests a twofold response: (i) relying on a combination of fiscal consolidation and higher interest rates to maintain output at potential; and (ii) using macro-prudential tools—including, where needed, capital controls—to avoid increases in systemic risk arising from inflows. Chapter 2 covers CAREC countries. (Foreword and Executive Summary are in Russian and Chinese.)
Apr 2011EconomyBooks
Regional Economic Outlook April 2011: Middle East and Central Asia | РУССКИЙ | 中文
This edition takes stock of recent regional economic developments and discusses key policy issues facing the Middle East and Central Asia. In the Caucasus and Central Asia, strong growth continues on the back of higher oil and gas exports and government spending. To sustain this recovery, policy makers need to address rising inflation, respond to social pressures arising from high food prices without threatening fiscal stability, and restore the health of banking systems. (Caucasus and Central Asia Highlights are in Russian and Chinese.)
Apr 2011Economy, PovertyBooks
Rising Food and Energy Prices in Europe and Central Asia | РУССКИЙ
This paper presents the possible impact of rising food and fuel prices on Europe and Central Asian countries’ macroeconomic and poverty outcomes. It aims to illustrate the possible short-run consequences of rising prices and the countries that are most likely to be significantly affected, both adversely and positively. At the same time, it notes the importance of medium-term policy and non-policy related factors that could mitigate adverse consequences of commodity price increases.
(World Bank)
Apr 2011Energy, EconomyResearch and reports
Azerbaijan: A Cradle of Humanity Embraces Modernity
This development effectiveness brief features operations of the Asian Development Bank in Azerbaijan that reflect the Government of Azerbaijan’s priorities, including economic diversification beyond the oil sector. The Asian Development Bank’s work in Azerbaijan has focused on promoting inclusive economic growth, as well as supporting regional cooperation efforts.
Mar 2011Transport, Energy, Regional Cooperation, EconomyBriefs and notes
Kazakhstan: On the Path to Higher Levels of Development
This development effectiveness brief summarizes the assistance that the Asian Development Bank (ADB) has provided to Kazakhstan. The ADB country partnership strategy for 2011–2014 will support Kazakhstan in going beyond its middle-income country status. ADB will promote inclusive economic growth and competitiveness through complementary public and private sector investments. Further, ADB will consolidate its resources to support synergized investments in energy, transport, finance, and the urban sectors.
Mar 2011Transport, Energy, Regional Cooperation, EconomyBriefs and notes
Methodology for Impact Assessment of Free Trade Agreements
This publication presents several available methods to evaluate the impact of free trade agreements. It caters mainly to policy makers from developing countries and aims to equip them with economic knowledge and techniques necessary to conduct their own economic evaluation studies on existing or future agreements, or to critically re-examine the results of impact assessment studies conducted by others.
(Michael G. Plummer, David Cheong, Shintaro Hamanaka / ADB)
Feb 2011Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Priority Directions for Uzbekistan to Engage in Transport Communications Development in Afghanistan: Challenges and Prospects | РУССКИЙ
This brief explores optimal paths for economic cooperation between Afghanistan and Uzbekistan in the context of improving implementation of joint transport communication projects. The research also considers issues which may influence bilateral cooperation, such as (i) the military-political situation in the country and analysis of third-party geopolitical and geo-economic interests, (ii) the socioeconomic situation in Afghanistan and the main directions of the Uzbek–Afghan economic partnership, including problems and prospects of transport and transit cooperation between the two countries. (Russian only)
(Center for Economic Research)
Feb 2011TransportBriefs and notes
Uzbekistan: A Partnership for Growth
This development effectiveness brief highlights the partnership between the Asian Development Bank and Uzbekistan. The Asian Development Bank has supported Uzbekistan’s efforts toward environmentally sustainable rural development, private sector development, regional transport and transit, and human capital through improving access to water, education, and health services.
Feb 2011Transport, Regional Cooperation, Private Sector, EconomyBriefs and notes
World Economic Outlook Update: Global Recovery Advances but Remains Uneven | РУССКИЙ | 中文
Global output is projected to expand by 4.5% in 2011, an upward revision of about 0.25 percentage points relative to the October 2010 edition. This reflects stronger-than-expected activity in the second half of 2010 as well as new policy initiatives in the United States that will boost activity in 2011.
Jan 2011EconomyResearch and reports
Intraregional Trade Costs in Asia: A Primer
While most Asian countries actively engage in bilateral or regional trade and economic integration initiatives, including trade facilitation or trade cost reduction programs or targets, little is known about the level of intraregional trade costs in Asia and to what extent these costs may have decreased over time. To address this knowledge gap, this paper estimates and analyzes intra- and extra-regional trade costs of 4 Asian subregions, namely Association of Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN), South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), North and Central Asia, and East and Northeast Asia.
(Trade and Investment Division / UNESCAP)
Jan 2011Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, Regional CooperationWorking papers
Proposals for WTO Reform: A Synthesis and Assessment
This paper summarizes the major arguments and proposals to reform the modus operandi of the World Trade Organization—including decision-making procedures, negotiating modalities, and dispute settlement.
(Bernard Hoekman / World Bank)
Jan 2011Trade PolicyWorking Papers
Unfinished Business? The WTO's Doha Agenda
This book examines the state and the fate of the Doha Development Agenda. The volume has three key objectives: to provide qualitative and quantitative information about the implications of what is currently on the table; to examine controversial areas where further progress might be made; and to identify lessons that might be of use for future negotiations.
(World Bank)
Jan 2011Trade PolicyBooks
Connecting Landlocked Developing Countries to Markets
This book aims to help the policy maker and development community in general to understand the nature of the problems and policy dilemmas that landlocked countries face to trade with the rest of the world. An important breakthrough in the literature, this volume focuses on a new conceptual framework that challenges the previous paradigm of physical infrastructure and state-led access solutions, embodied in many treaties.
(Jean Francois Arvis, Robin Carruthers, Graham Smith, and Christopher Willoughby / World Bank)
Jan 2011Transport, Trade FacilitationBooks
Institutions for Regional Integration: Toward an Asian Economic Community
This study looks at the institutional framework for regional cooperation and integration and analyzes why, despite the dense network of arrangements and institutions, Asia remains "institution light." It recommends some principles and options to strengthen Asia's institutional architecture to achieve an Asian economic community. CAREC is among the regional programs discussed in the study.
Jan 2011Regional CooperationBooks
Infrastructure and Growth in Developing Asia
This paper presents the state of infrastructure in developing Asian countries. It applies two distinct approaches (growth regressions and growth accounting) to analyze the link between infrastructure, growth, and productivity. The main conclusion is that a number of countries in developing Asia have significantly improved their basic infrastructure endowments in the recent past, and this appears to correlate significantly to good growth performances.
(Stéphane Straub, Akiko Terada-Hagiwara / ADB)
Jan 2011Transport, Economy, Energy, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Sustainable Transport Initiative: An Overview
This publication gives an overview of the Asian Development Bank’s (ADB) sustainable transport initiative (STI). Strategy 2020 is the ADB long-term strategic framework for 2008–2020. During this period, ADB lending and technical assistance operations in Asia and the Pacific will emphasize inclusive economic growth, environmentally sustainable growth, and regional integration. The STI operation plan provides details of how ADB will update its operations in the transport sector in line with Strategy 2020. ADB will focus on creating transport systems that are accessible, safe, affordable, and environment-friendly.
Jan 2011Transport, Regional CooperationOthers
Monitoring Road Works Contracts and Unit Costs for Enhanced Governance in Europe and Central Asia
The study establishes a framework for cross-country comparative assessments of the procurement and implementation processes of road works contracts financed by the World Bank. Some indicators used to capture the trends for each country include (i) difference between contract values and their engineer’s estimates; (ii) cost overruns; (iii) time overruns; (iv) bidding indicators for contracts with and without prequalification; (v) time elapsed between bid opening and contract signing dates; (vi) cost per kilometer of similar works; (vii) road works unit costs; and (viii) ratios between supervision contract values and the related road works contract values.
(Victoria Alexeeva, Cesar Queiroz, and Satoshi Ishihara / World Bank)
Jan 2011TransportWorking papers
Eurasian Integration Yearbook 2011
The 2011 edition presents the chronology of 2 decades of post-Soviet disintegration and integration, from 1991 to 2010. It has articles on other subjects as well, including economic cooperation in telecommunications and nuclear energy.
(Evgeny Vinokurov, ed. / Eurasian Development Bank)
2011Regional CooperationBooks
Making Globalization Socially Sustainable
This publication discusses ways of making globalization socially sustainable. Globalization has the potential to promote growth and development but concerns have been raised about its effects on jobs and wages.
(International Labour Office and World Trade Organization)
2011Economy, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Review of Maritime Transport 2010
This publication closely monitors developments affecting world seaborne trade, freight rates, ports, surface transport, and logistics services, as well as trends in ship ownership and control and fleet age, tonnage supply, and productivity. The Review contains a chapter on legal and regulatory developments and each year includes a chapter highlighting a different region. In 2010, the focus is on Asia and the Pacific.
Dec 2010Transport, Trade FacilitationBooks
UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics
This publication provides essential data for analyzing and measuring world trade, investment, international financial flows and development. Reliable statistical information is often considered the first step during the preparation of recommendations or decision making that countries will commit for many years as they strive to integrate into the world economy and improve the living standards of their citizens.
Dec 2010Trade Facilitation, EconomyBooks
Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Report 2010: Recent Trends and Developments
This edition (i) discusses recent trends in merchandise trade flows of selected countries and country-groups; (ii) comprehensively analyzes recent trends in commercial services trade in the region, providing an up-to-date breakdown of services trade for different subregions and services sectors; (iii) focuses on recent developments in foreign direct investment (FDI) in and from the region and explains why some economies attract more FDI than others; (iv) estimates the costs of trade for Asia and the Pacific utilizing a new database developed by UNESCAP; (v) details recent developments in regional trade agreements and provides relevant statistics on merchandise trade covered by these agreements; and (vi) gives an overview of protectionist measures that announced or implemented since November 2008.
(Trade and Investment Division / UNESCAP)
Dec 2010Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EconomyBooks
Border Management Modernization: A Practical Guide for Reformers
This book provides border management policy makers and reformers with a broad survey of key developments in and principles for improving trade facilitation through better border management, including practical advice on particular issues. In contrast to the traditional border management reform agenda, with its focus on improving customs operations, this book addresses both customs reform and areas well beyond customs-a significant broadening of scope.
(Gerard McLinden, Enrique Fanta, David Widdowson, and Tom Doyle, eds. / World Bank)
Nov 2010Regional Cooperation, Trade FacilitationBooks
Afghanistan: Modernizing Asia's Crossroads
This development effectiveness brief focuses on Asian Development Bank (ADB) assistance in Afghanistan. ADB has concentrated its loans and grants in energy, transport, irrigation, agriculture, governance, and finance. ADB has also used private sector support to help invigorate banking, and telecommunications.
Nov 2010Transport, Energy, Regional Cooperation, EconomyBriefs and notes
Mongolia: A Partnership Against Poverty
This development effectiveness brief is about the strategy of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in Mongolia that centers on policy and institutional reform, as well as building local capacity. ADB seeks to support inclusive social development through competitive, sustainable, and regionally integrated growth that is closely aligned with the country’s National Development Strategy. ADB plans to be particularly active in promoting good government policies.
Nov 2010Transport, Private Sector, Regional Cooperation, EconomyBriefs and notes
Trade and Income in Asia: Panel Data Evidence from Instrumental Variable Regression
This paper derives a Frankel–Romer instrument from a global trade matrix of 157 countries between 1990 and 2007. Instrumental variable regressions assess the relationship between international trade, domestic market potential, and income for developing Asia compared to the world average. The study concludes that, on average, international trade has increased income across trading nations, particularly for countries in developing Asia. Domestic market size, on the other hand, is found to be less relevant in explaining growth in developing Asia, indicating that there is much scope for the region to exploit domestic markets as an additional engine of growth.
(Benno Ferrarini / ADB)
Nov 2010Trade Facilitation, EconomyWorking papers
Paths to 2015: MDG Priorities in Asia and the Pacific-Asia-Pacific MDG Report 2010/11
This report is Asia and the Pacific’s assessment of progress made in achieving the Millennium Development Goals in 2015. It examines likely outcomes on present trends, identifies some of the weakest areas of performance, and presents priorities for accelerated action in achieving the Millennium Development Goals. It focuses on three areas where increased and sustained policy attention is required: hunger and food security, health and basic services, and basic infrastructure—areas where many of the countries in the region appear to be facing significant challenges.
Nov 2010Transport, Energy, Poverty, EconomyResearch and reports
Doing Business 2011: Making a Difference for Entrepreneurs
This edition benchmarks 183 economies on how easy or difficult it is for a local entrepreneur to open and run a small to medium-sized business when complying with relevant regulations. It measures and tracks changes in the regulations applying to domestic, primarily smaller companies through their life cycle, from start-up to closing.
(IFC and World Bank)
Nov 2010Economy, Finance, Private SectorResearch and reports
Diagnostic Study on Pillar 3 of the CAREC Energy Strategy: Energy–Water Linkages | РУССКИЙ
The overall aim of the ESCC Pillar 3 energy-water linkages is to build regional energy and water security through enhanced regional cooperation in energy and water resources development and management.
Nov 2010EnergyWorking papers
Trade and Institutional Environment: The International Experience and a Proposed Agenda of Measures | РУССКИЙ
This paper was prepared for the CAREC Trade Policy Coordinating Committee and examines the relationship between institutions and trade expansion in CAREC countries. It begins by reviewing the most recent developments of the global crisis and their potential consequences for developing countries' exports. Then it summarizes the current consensus in the economic literature on the relation between the quality of institutions and trade. The third section focuses on the trade-related institutional environment in CAREC countries. The last section proposes a list of broad measures to improve the trade-related institutional environment.
(Oleh Havrylyshyn / CAREC Secretariat)
Oct 2010Trade PolicyResearch and reports
The Impact of Free Trade Agreements on Business Activity: A Survey of Firms in the People's Republic of China
After its accession to the World Trade Organization in December 2001, the People's Republic of China adopted a regional approach to trade and began negotiating and implementing Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). This paper analyzes the results of a survey undertaken across 232 Chinese firms with regard to FTA-related issues such as utilization of trade agreements, perceived costs and benefits, perceptions of multiple rules of origin, and policy and institutional support mechanisms. It was found that, of the firms surveyed, 45% were to some extent using FTAs.
(Yunling Zhang / ADB Institute)
Oct 2010Trade Policy, Regional CooperationWorking papers
World Economic Outlook October 2010: Recovery, Risk, and Rebalancing | РУССКИЙ | 中文
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) forecasts that the world economy will grow by 4.8% in 2010 before falling back to 4.2% next year, but a sharper global slowdown is unlikely. With the world still trying to bounce back from the global economic crisis, the IMF says that the recovery remains fragile and uneven. Unemployment remains a major economic and social challenge. More than 210 million people across the globe may be unemployed, an increase of more than 30 million since 2007. Chapter 2 covers CAREC countries. (Foreword and Executive Summary in Russian and Chinese)
Oct 2010EconomyBooks
Diagnostic Study on Pillar 1 of the CAREC Energy Strategy: Energy Demand/Supply Balance and Infrastructure Constraints | РУССКИЙ
This study of the Energy Action Plan involves carrying out a diagnostics evaluation on the energy supply/demand balance and infrastructure constraints, and to identify the status regarding completed, ongoing and planned energy sector projects which will have an impact on the intra-regional power trade capability.
Oct 2010EnergyResearch and reports
Diagnostic Study on Pillar 2 of the CAREC Energy Strategy: Regional Dispatch and Regulatory Development | РУССКИЙ
The main objectives of this short-term study are to provide a preliminary assessment of the opportunities and challenges in strengthening electricity dispatch and system operations across Central Asia.
(World Bank)
Oct 2010EnergyResearch and reports
Price of Electricity Transit in Transition Countries | РУССКИЙ
This report analyzes various issues related to electricity transit in selected countries of Central and South Asia and compares existing transit tariff methodologies and to make recommendations to the respective decision making bodies of the region.
(Energy Charter)
Oct 2010EnergyResearch and reports
Reaching the MDGs: An Action Plan for Trade
Lack of integration into the global economy is a major factor in the continued underdevelopment of the poorest countries. The reasons for this include obstacles faced by exporters both abroad and at home: access to foreign markets is frequently limited by import barriers, while inadequate infrastructure and weak policies at home—including their own trade policies—often frustrate producers seeking to compete abroad. This paper outlines the 15-point action plan that can help achieve the Millennium Development Goals.
(Katrin Elborgh-Woytek, Rob Gregory, and Brad McDonald / IMF)
Sep 2010Trade Policy, PovertyBriefs and notes
Trends in National and Regional Investors Financing Crossborder Infrastructure Projects in Asia
This paper examines a range of cross-border infrastructure development issues relevant to Asian countries. It also states that, given the huge infrastructure investment needs of the region and insufficient government resources, the role of the private sector and public–private partnerships in enhancing infrastructure facilities in Asia is crucial.
(Prabir De, Muthi Samudram, Sanjeev Moholkar / ADB Institute)
Sep 2010Energy, Transport, Trade FacilitationWorking papers
Estimating Demand for Infrastructure in Energy, Transport, Telecommunications, Water and Sanitation in Asia and the Pacific: 2010-2020
This paper estimates the need for infrastructure investment, including energy, transport, telecommunications, water, and sanitation during 2010–2020, to meet growing demand for services and facilitate further rapid growth in the region. The estimates show that developing countries in Asia require financing of $776 billion per year for national and regional infrastructure.
(Biswa Nath Bhattacharyay / ADB Institute)
Sep 2010Energy, TransportWorking papers
Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2010: The Rise of Asia's Middle Class
This publication is the flagship annual statistical data book of the Asian Development Bank. It presents the latest available economic, financial, social, environmental, and Millennium Development Goal indicators for regional members. The special chapter in this edition—The Rise of Asia's Middle Class—looks at the growth and impacts of the region's rapidly expanding middle class, and resulting economic and policy implications.
Aug 2010Economy, Regional CooperationBooks
Appropriate Economic Space for Transnational Infrastructural Projects: Gateways, Multimodal Corridors, and Special Economic Zones
This paper addresses questions that arise in Asia when formulating, financing, implementing, and maintaining transnational linkages versus purely domestic connections. Issues include (i) how is optimal economic space to be defined as a useful starting point?; (ii) how can relevant criteria be developed to define the emerging spatial economy and identify efficient transnational transport networks?; and (iii) what are the main investment opportunities in physical infrastructure that would result in more efficient and effective regional cooperation and integration (making special reference to the potential role of cross-border special economic zones or their equivalents)?
(Peter J. Rimmer, Howard Dick / ADB Institute)
Aug 2010Transport, Trade Facilitation, Regional CooperationWorking papers
World Trade Report 2010 – Trade in Natural Resources
This edition focuses on trade in natural resources, such as fuels, forestry, mining, and fisheries. It examines the characteristics of trade in natural resources, the policy choices available to governments and the role of international cooperation, particularly of the World Trade Organization, in the proper management of trade in this sector.
(World Trade Organization)
Jul 2010Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Financing Asia’s Infrastructure: Modes of Development and Integration of Asian Financial Markets
This paper explores issues and challenges in financing infrastructure for seamless Asian infrastructure connectivity and for other high priority development financing needs. It also seeks methods and instruments to help direct Asian and international resources to cost-effectively and efficiently support infrastructure and other development needs.
(Biswa Bhattacharyay / ADB Institute)
Jul 2010Transport, EnergyWorking papers
Critical Evaluation of Cross-Border Infrastructure Projects in Asia
This paper attempts to fill gaps faced by policy makers and practitioners in the evaluation of cross-border infrastructure projects. It first defines what constitutes cross-border infrastructure projects, and then outlines an analytical framework and criteria to evaluate them. It also reports on emerging impact patterns evidenced in relevant studies. The paper draws lessons and implications for design and implementation of cross-border infrastructure projects – among them are CAREC projects.
(Manabu Fujimura, Ramesh Adhikari / ADBI)
Jul 2010Transport, Energy, Regional CooperationWorking papers
Trade Facilitation and Regional Cooperation in Asia
The studies in this book look at how investment in Asia’s infrastructure promotes and supports interregional trade growth. The region’s rapid development has been heavily dependent on markets external to the region. However, given the unlikely timely recovery of the United States or Europe there is an urgent need to develop domestic and regional markets. Thus, the importance of greater integration has been more pressing.
(Douglas Brooks, Susan Stone (eds.) / ADB Institute)
Jul 2010Trade Facilitation, Regional CooperationBooks
The Benefits of Regional Infrastructure Investment in Asia: A Quantitative Exploration
Capitalizing on recent estimates of infrastructure financing requirements in Asia, this paper frames a scenario for infrastructure development in the region and estimates the external effects of infrastructure investment. It also assesses quantitatively the economy-wide welfare effects of developing regional infrastructure in Asia, using a global computable general equilibrium model.
(Fan Zhai / ADBI)
Jun 2010TransportWorking papers
Institutions for Asian Connectivity
This paper draws links between connectivity, growth and development, governance, and institutions. It details the benefits Asia could achieve by addressing needed connectivity enhancements and the connectivity and financing challenges it faces. In addition, it presents various institutional options for regional infrastructure financing. To build seamless Asian connectivity, Asia needs an effective, formal, and rules-based institutional framework.
(Biswa Bhattacharyay / ADBI)
Jun 2010Regional CooperationWorking papers
Central Asia: Expanding Trade by Connecting with Markets
The report signals the need for Central Asian countries to diversify their export bases. To attain productivity that is vital for the future economic growth and development of the region, the report calls on countries to diversity products and exports, and to develop their markets that will eventually facilitate transformation from agriculture to industry and services. The report focuses on Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, and Tajikistan.
(World Bank)
Jun 2010Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Achieving the Trade Targets of Millennium Development Goal 8: Status in the Least Developed Countries of Asia and the Pacific
This paper examines the progress in achieving the trade targets of Millennium Development Goal 8—“Building a global partnership for development”—with respect to the least developed countries (LDCs) of Asia and the Pacific. It concludes that while the market access commitments of the Hong Kong World Trade Organization’s Ministerial Declaration of 2005 have largely been met and LDCs of the Asia-Pacific benefit disproportionately from Aid for Trade, the overall share of LDC exports as a part of total world exports has not increased over the past decade.
(Trade and Investment Division / UNESCAP)
Jun 2010Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyWorking papers
Commodity Prices and Inflation in the Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia
This paper looks at a strikingly uniform inflation pattern in the Middle East, North African, and Central Asian countries during 1996–2009, in which inflation fell until about 2000 and then began rising. International fuel prices do not help explain this pattern. Instead, it is mainly explained by past inflation, the strength of the US dollar, US inflation, and—depending on the subset of countries analyzed—monetary and exchange rate policies and nonfuel commodity prices.
(Joseph Crowley / IMF)
Jun 2010EconomyWorking papers
ADB's Contribution to Inclusive Growth in Transport and Energy Projects
This paper proposes a methodology for assessing inclusive growth contributions of the Asian Development Bank in economic infrastructure projects. It applies the methodology to 8 energy and 10 transport projects of various subsectors and key activity areas.
(Stein Hansen / ADB)
Jun 2010Transport, EnergyWorking papers
Regional Trade Agreements
This paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on regionalism. The formation of regional trade agreements has been, by far, the most popular form of reciprocal trade liberalization in the past 15 years. The discriminatory character of these agreements has raised three main concerns: that trade diversion would be rampant, because special interest groups would induce governments to form the most distortionary agreements; that broader external trade liberalization would stall or reverse; and that multilateralism could be undermined.
(Caroline Freund, Emanuel Ornelas / World Bank)
May 2010Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyWorking Papers
Regional Economic Outlook: Middle East and Central Asia (May 2010) | РУССКИЙ | 中文
This edition reports on the regional implications of global economic developments and presents key policy challenges and recommendations. In the Caucasus and Central Asia, exports have begun to pick up, the decline in remittances appears to be slowing or reversing, and capital inflows have turned positive. For 2010, a recovery across the region is projected as the global economy, and in particular the Russian Federation, picks up speed. (Chapters B1 and B2 in Russian, while Highlights in Chinese.)
(Middle East and Central Asia Department / IMF)
May 2010Economy, FinanceBooks
Strategic Water Resources in Central Asia: In search of a new international legal order
This paper describes the basic problem and the efforts undertaken by Central Asia's states and the international community to seek a resolution on the allocation and use of the region's water resources. It traces recent developments relating to the planned construction of dams, the modification of energy supplies, and the periodic issue of statements from the governments. Finally, it looks into the challenge for establishing a modern international legal order to govern the region's strategic water resources.
(Stephen Hodgson / EU-Central Asia Monitoring)
May 2010EnergyBriefs and notes
Global Monitoring Report 2010: The MDGs after the Crisis
This report aims to answer - How has the world performed in overcoming poverty and fostering human development since the onset of the crisis? – and other critical questions. It highlights lessons from the crisis and presents forecasts about poverty and other key indicators. It covers all regions including Central Asia.
(World Bank, IMF)
Apr 2010Poverty, EconomyBooks
Export Performance and Trade Facilitation Reform: Hard and Soft Infrastructure
This paper estimates the impact of aggregate indicators of “soft” and “hard” infrastructure on the export performance of developing countries. Four new indicators for 101 countries (including those in Central Asia) were built over 2004-2007. Estimates show that trade facilitation reforms do improve the export performance of developing countries. This is particularly true with investment in physical infrastructure and regulatory reform to improve the business environment.
(Albert Portugal-Perez, John S. Wilson / World Bank)
Apr 2010Trade FacilitationWorking Papers
Asian Development Outlook 2010: Macroeconomic Management Beyond the Crisis
This edition sees developing Asia emerging from the recent crisis and posting a strong recovery in the next 2 years, as a moderate global recovery supports a modest revival in global trade. Investment is expected to remain strong and private consumption is anticipated to improve. Inflation will pick up, but at manageable levels. Beyond the crisis, developing Asia faces the challenge of adjusting its monetary, exchange rate, and fiscal policies to foster macroeconomic stability and sustained growth within the broader direction of a return to prudence and discipline.
Apr 2010EconomyBooks
World Economic Outlook April 2010: Rebalancing Growth | РУССКИЙ | 中文
This Outlook reports that the global recovery is proceeding better than expected but at varying speeds—tepidly in many advanced economies and solidly in most emerging and developing economies. World growth is now expected to be 4.25%. Among the advanced economies, the United States is off to a better start than Europe and Japan. Among emerging and developing economies, emerging Asia is leading the recovery, while many emerging European and some Commonwealth of Independent States economies are lagging behind. (Foreword and Executive Summary in Russian and Chinese)
Apr 2010EconomyBooks
Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation: Good Neighbors, Good Partners, Good Prospects | РУССКИЙ | 中文
This brochure gives an overview of the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) Program. It briefly explains the program, its structure, its comprehensive action plan, the four priority sectors (transport, trade facilitation, trade policy, and energy), and its other initiatives.
Apr 2010Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, Energy, Regional CooperationOthers
Today's People, Tomorrow's Prosperity: Reviving Growth in Central and West Asia
This brochure presents the Asian Development Bank's (ADB) continuous efforts to help countries in Central and West Asia rebuild and reform vital services and infrastructure. From microfinance and education projects to telecommunications, from disaster risk reduction to new roads and rails, ADB is working with countries in the region to revive the Silk Road and bring prosperity back to one of the world's cradles of civilization.
Apr 2010Regional CooperationOthers
Ancient Culture, Modern Economy: ADB Projects in Uzbekistan | РУССКИЙ
This brochure focuses on Uzbekistan, one of the world's cradles of civilization and is home to rich ancient cultures and to the Silk Road, the ancient overland trade route connecting Asia and Europe. Since 1996, the Asian Development Bank-supported programs in the form of $1.29 billion in loans covering transport, energy, water and sanitation, education, and the finance sector have improved people's lives.
Apr 2010Transport, EconomyOthers
Central Asia Atlas of Natural Resources
The Atlas brings to readers a sense of the beauty and wealth in Central Asia, the issues its people face in using and conserving natural resources, and the efforts toward sustainable development. Consisting of Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, Central Asia is a vast land mass separating the countries of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus from East and South Asia.
Apr 2010TransportBooks
Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific 2010
This survey - Sustaining Recovery and Dynamism for Inclusive Development - assesses the critical issues, policy challenges, and risks that the region faces in the months ahead as it leads the world economy in recovery from a dire recession. It also outlines the elements of a policy agenda for regaining the region’s dynamism through inclusive and sustainable growth.
Apr 2010EconomyBooks
Bilateral Dimensions of the CAREC Trade Facilitation Agenda: Spotlight on Mongolia and the People's Republic of China
The April 2010 issue of ADB Knowledge Showcases newsletter looks at the bilateral dimensions of the CAREC Trade Facilitation Agenda between Mongolia and the People's Republic of China. The agenda promotes cooperation on regional public goods which promises substantial economic benefits. It is implemented under the CAREC program which provides an effective institutional forum for negotiating complex, cross-border projects.
(Ying Qian, Yuebin Zhang, Jeff Procak / ADB)
Apr 2010Trade FacilitationOthers
Statistical Yearbook for Asia and the Pacific 2009
The third edition of the revised Statistical Yearbook is an authoritative reference on the social, economic, and environmental development of Asia and the Pacific since 1990. Through more than 200 key internationally comparable indicators, it compares Asia and the Pacific with the world average and other regions, including Africa, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean and North America. It includes 128 reader-friendly charts and descriptive texts on 30 development topics.
Mar 2010Economy, Transport, EnergyBooks
Reconnecting India and Central Asia: Emerging Security and Economic Dimensions
This volume presents an overview of the emerging and deepening relations between India and Central Asia in both the political and economic fields. The stability and security of Central Asia is of prime importance for India. India has been active mainly in infrastructure, trade, education, health, and technology in the region. Conversely, India’s increasing need for energy can be addressed by the energy-rich Central Asian countries, while improved transport networks could provide a boost to continental trade across the region.
(Nirmala Joshi (ed.) / Central Asia-Caucasus Institute & Silk Road Studies Program)
Mar 2010Transport, Energy, Regional CooperationResearch and reports
The Cyclicality of Fiscal Policy in the Middle East and Central Asia:Is the Current Crisis Different?
This paper analyzes the cyclical properties of fiscal policy in the Middle East and Central Asia during the past 4 decades and explores whether the response during the current global economic crisis is different in 2009. Across a sample of 28 countries, the key finding is that fiscal policy has typically amplified the business cycles and that it has been more procyclical in good times than in bad times.
(Yasser Abdih, Pablo Lopez-Murphy, Agustin Roitman, Ratna Sahay / IMF)
Mar 2010EconomyWorking papers
Lights Out: The Outlook for Energy in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union | РУССКИЙ
This report analyzes the outlook for energy demand and supply in Europe and Central Asia. It estimates the investment requirements and highlights the potential environmental concerns associated with meeting future energy needs, including those related to climate change. The report also proposes the actions necessary to create an attractive environment for investment in cleaner energy. Greater regional cooperation for smart energy and climate action is an important part of the World Bank’s engagement in the region. (Overview is available in Russian.)
(World Bank)
Mar 2010EnergyResearch and reports
Economic Transition and Health Care Reform: The Experience of Europe and Central Asia
This paper uses the staggered adoption of major concurrent health reforms in countries in Europe and Central Asia after 1990 to estimate their impact on public health expenditure, utilization, and avoidable deaths. While the health systems all derived from the same paradigm under central planning, they have since introduced changes to policies regarding cost-sharing, provider payment, financing, and the rationalization of hospital infrastructure.
(Adam Leive / IMF)
Mar 2010OthersWorking papers
Into EurAsia—Monitoring the EU's Central Asia Strategy | РУССКИЙ
This final report offers the first assessment of the strategy to upgrade the European Union's cooperation with five Central Asian states: Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. It also looks at the role of the Russian Federation, the People's Republic of China, the United States, and others in Central Asia, as well the current state of politics and economics in the region.
(Michael Emerson, Jos Boonstra, Nafisa Hasanova, Marlene Laruelle, Sebastien Peyrouse / EU-Central Asia Monitoring)
Feb 2010Regional CooperationBooks
Into EurAsia—Monitoring the EU's Central Asia Strategy: Executive Summary and Recommendations | РУССКИЙ
The European Union's (EU) Central Asia Strategy was introduced in 2007 to upgrade the EU's cooperation with the five states of the region. One of the objectives of EUCAM was to assess and monitor the implementation of the strategy. This policy brief serves as a summary of the EUCAM Report Into EurAsia - Monitoring the EU's Central Asia Strategy.
(Michael Emerson, Jos Boonstra / EU-Central Asia Monitoring)
Feb 2010Regional CooperationBriefs and notes
Energy Emergency in Kyrgyzstan: Causes and Consequences
The energy shortage in the Kyrgyz Republic and Tajikistan has deteriorated recently. Heavily dependent on hydro resources but their outdated and barely functional energy infrastructure has had to face a number of environmental challenges. This policy brief focuses on the root causes of the energy crisis in the Kyrgyz Republic, assessing its implications for the wider region and looking at the role the European Union to improve the situation.
(Shairbek Juraev / EU-Central Asia Monitoring)
Feb 2010EnergyBriefs and notes
World Economic Outlook Update: A Policy-Driven, Multispeed Recovery | РУССКИЙ | 中文
This update states that the global recovery is off to a stronger start as economic growth solidified and broadened to advanced economies in the second half of 2009. World output is expected to rise by 4% in 2010, representing an upward revision of the three-fourths percentage point from the October 2009 World Economic Outlook.
Jan 2010EconomyBooks
Global Economic Prospects 2010: Crisis, Finance, and Growth
This report examines the consequences of the crisis for both the short- and medium-term growth prospects of developing countries. It concludes that the crisis and the regulatory reaction to the financial excesses of the preceding several years may have lasting impacts on financial markets, raising borrowing costs and lowering levels of credit and international capital flows. As a result, the rate of growth of potential output in developing countries may be reduced by between 0.2 and 0.7 percentage points annually over the next 5 to 7 years as economies adjust to tighter financial conditions.
(World Bank)
Jan 2010Economy, FinanceResearch and reports
The EU Assistance to Central Asia: Back to the Drawing Board?
European Union (EU) assistance in general and to Central Asia in particular is a complicated, many sided and fairly opaque business. Over a 7-year period, 719 million Euros were to be set aside for assistance to the region through the new EU Development Cooperation Instrument (DCI). This paper aims to shed light on EU assistance as it addresses the 'what', 'where' and 'how' of EU assistance to Central Asian republics, but the 'why' question is beyond the scope of this paper. It concludes with recommendations that apply to EU assistance over the medium and long terms.
(Jos Boonstra, Jacqueline Hale / EU-Central Asia Monitoring)
Jan 2010Economy, Regional CooperationWorking papers
Investing Across Borders 2010
This report provides selected indicators of foreign direct investment regulation in 87 economies – including Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, the People’s Republic of China, Kazakhstan, and the Kyrgyz Republic. It aims to help countries develop more competitive business environments by identifying good practices in investment policy design and implementation by presenting quantitative indicators on the laws, regulations, and practices affecting how foreign companies invest across sectors, start businesses, access industrial land, and arbitrate commercial disputes.
(World Bank Group)
2010Economy, Private SectorResearch and reports
Eurasian Integration Yearbook 2010
The 2010 edition highlights the establishment and early operations of the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and the Russian Federation in 2009. It also has articles on regional integration and regionalization, financial integration and common currency, and issues concerning agriculture and climate change.
(Evgeny Vinokurov, ed. / Eurasian Development Bank)
2010Regional CooperationBooks
Azerbaijan. Country Economic Memorandum: A New Silk Road - Export-led Diversification
This report lays out Azerbaijan's need to more vigorously pursue diversification aimed at reducing its dependence on oil revenue and ensuring sustainability of its hard-earned gains in poverty reduction. The country should also focus on attracting foreign know-how and strengthening market institutions.
(World Bank)
Dec 2009EconomyResearch and reports
The Crisis Hits Home: Stress-Testing Households in Europe and Central Asia
This study seeks to understand the key macroeconomic shocks confronted by Europe and Central Asia and their impact on household welfare. Among these shocks are (i) the global growth slowdown leading to falling export market, (ii) financial deleveraging by major banks and other financial institutions in developed economies, and (iii) the recent commodity price changes. The study also assesses possible strategies to cope with the crisis and manage the adverse social impact.
(Erwin R. Tiongson, Naotaka Sugawara, Victor Sulla, Ashley Taylor, Anna I. Gueorguieva, Victoria Levin, Kalanidhi Subbarao / World Bank)
Dec 2009Economy, PovertyResearch and reports
Globalization of Production and the Competitiveness of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Asia and the Pacific: Trends and Prospects
This paper seeks to provide policy-oriented recommendations and practical initiatives that would be useful in the globalization of production and competitiveness of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). These include (i) implementing a number of focused improvements to the (external) business enabling environments for SMEs, with particular emphasis on logistics systems; (ii) carrying out multiple efforts to improve the sophistication of (internal) operations and business strategies of SMEs; (iii) developing and supporting more enterprise “clusters;’” and (iv) pursuing a number of subregional cooperative actions.
(Trade and Investment Division / UNESCAP)
Dec 2009Economy, Private Sector, Regional CooperationResearch and reports
Impact of Trade Facilitation on Export Competitiveness: A Regional Perspective
This paper examines the definition and scope of trade facilitation; presents the concept of export competitiveness and relevant indices; discusses the role of trade facilitation in enhancing export competitiveness; identifies the major issues that developing countries in Asia should address in terms of trade facilitation to enhance export competitiveness; and provides policy recommendations.
Dec 2009Transport, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Transition and Development (Dec 2009) | РУССКИЙ
This issue is devoted to "Twenty years of transition and human development," marking the 20th anniversary of the end of communism and of UNDP’s first Human Development Report. It discusses the economic crisis that could push at least 50 million more people living in Eastern Europe and Central Asia into poverty during the next 3-4 years, and the lasting and adverse effects of the crisis for disadvantaged regions and social groups. It also covers other development issues, including the Copenhagen meeting on climate change.
(UNDP and London School of Economics and Political Science)
Dec 2009EconomyOthers
Optimisation of Central Asian and Eurasian Trans-Continental Land Transport Corridors
At present, there is an overlapping but inadequately coordinated combination of strategic trans-continental transport corridors or axes stretching across the Eurasian landmass, centered on or around Central Asia. There are three such initiatives—from the European Union, the People's Republic of China and the Asian Development Bank, and the Eurasian Economic Community. This paper reviews these several strategic transport maps and makes proposals for their coordination and rationalization.
(Michael Emerson, Evgeny Vinokurov / EU-Central Asia Monitoring)
Dec 2009Transport, Regional CooperationWorking papers
Final Report on Issyk-Kul Sustainable Development Project, Kyrgyz Republic
This final report on Issyk-Kul Sustainable Development Project is presented in eight volumes. It covers the city-level infrastructure plan (volume 1), the environmental impacts associated with the proposed project (volume 2), the institutional plan (volume 3), the financial plan (volume 4), the strategic environmental management plan for the Issyk-Kul biosphere (volume 5), the various stakeholder consultation documents and findings (volume 6), the design criteria for each aspect of the project (volume 7), and the results of the social surveys and consultations (volume 8).
(Nippon Koei Co., Ltd. and RAM Engineering Services / ADB)
Dec 2009OthersResearch and reports
How Russia Affects the Neighborhood: Trade, Financial, and Remittance Channels
This paper tests the extent to which growth in the 11 countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) was associated with developments in the Russian Federation, overall, as well as through the trade, financial, and remittance channels over the last decade or so. The results point to the continued existence of economic links between the CIS countries and the Russian Federation, although these links may have altered since the 1998 crisis.
(Fahad Alturki, Jaime Espinosa-Bowen, Nadeem Ilahi / IMF)
Dec 2009Regional Cooperation, EconomyWorking papers
Business Process Analysis Guide to Simplify Trade Procedures | РУССКИЙ
This publication provides a simple methodology to elicit, document, and analyze the existing business processes involved in international trade, as well as aid in developing recommendations for further improvement. It intends to serve policy makers and practitioners from government agencies or the private sector involved in the harmonization and simplification of international trade procedures, alignment of data requirements with the international standard, and implementation of single window.
Dec 2009Trade Facilitation, Private SectorBooks
Turmoil at Twenty : Recession, Recovery, and Reform in Central and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union
This book analyses how transition countries in Europe and Central Asia fell into recession and crisis, why not all of them were equally affected, and whether different policies could have positioned them better to face the crisis. It also examines rescue and stabilization efforts and the role of international collective action; policies for recovery by restructuring bank, corporate, and household debt, and scaling up social safety nets.
(Pradeep Mitra, Marcelo Selowsky, Juan Zalduendo / World Bank)
Nov 2009EconomyBooks
Conclude Doha: It Matters!
The Doha Round must be concluded not because it will produce dramatic liberalization but because it will create greater security of market access. Its conclusion would strengthen, symbolically and substantively, the World Trade Organization’s valuable role in restraining protectionism in the current downturn. Concluding Doha would create space for multilateral cooperation on critical policy matters that lie outside the Doha Agenda, most urgently the trade policy implications of climate change mitigation.
(Bernard Hoekman, Will Martin, Aaditya Mattoo / World Bank)
Nov 2009Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Confronting "Death on Wheels": Making Roads Safe in Europe and Central Asia
This report provides an overview of the challenges and opportunities in addressing road safety in Europe and Central Asia. It presents information on the size, characteristics, and causes of the problem; presents evidence on the effectiveness of measures that countries worldwide have adopted to improve road safety; briefly describes current international road safety policy; and discusses a range of strategies and actions that could be undertaken by the World Bank in coordination and partnership with the World Health Organization (WHO), multilateral development banks, other international agencies and donors, as well as with private and civil society institutions.
(World Bank)
Nov 2009TransportResearch and reports
The EU Strategy for Central Asia says 'Security': Does this include Security Sector Reform?
This policy brief assesses in what aspects of Security Sector Reform the European Union (EU) is engaged in with Central Asia and in what context these possible activities should be viewed. It focuses on direct engagement on security topics such as the EU's Border Management Programme for Central Asia (BOMCA). It also offers recommendations on how to strengthen EU–Central Asia security cooperation.
(Jos Boonstra / EU-Central Asia Monitoring)
Nov 2009OthersBriefs and notes
Beyond the Border Management Programme for Central Asia (BOMCA)
This policy brief outlines BOMCA's mission and development. It also discusses the program's achievements and limitations, and provides recommendations designed to bolster the European Union's border management assistance.
(George Gavrilis / EU-Central Asia Monitoring)
Nov 2009OthersBriefs and notes
Roads for Asian Integration: Measuring ADB’s Contribution to the Asian Highway Network
This paper identifies ADB-financed regional roads and other kinds of roads in ADB's portfolio, estimates ADB's contribution to the Asian Highway network, and develops a map where ADB’s contribution to regional road construction and infrastructure can be easily juxtaposed with the highway network. Regional highways have been a notable and growing part of ADB's road portfolio since the 1990s, particularly in ADB’s subregional programs such as the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) and Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) programs.
(Srinivasa Madhur, Ganeshan Wignaraja, Peter Darjes / ADB)
Nov 2009TransportWorking papers
Transition Report 2009: Transition in Crisis? | РУССКИЙ
Twenty years after the fall of communism, the global financial crisis has put the transition region to an unprecedented test. Many countries are suffering severe recessions. This report focuses on the challenges posed by the crisis: both for the countries directly, and for the economic strategies they have followed since the decline of communism.
Nov 2009EconomyResearch and reports
Designing and Implementing Trade Facilitation in Asia and the Pacific
This reference book aims to support the implementation of trade facilitation measures and reforms in Asia and the Pacific. It attempts to bridge the gaps among policy makers, practitioners, and economists by outlining operational guidance on how to assess the status of trade facilitation, what measures and reforms are necessary, and how to implement them at national and regional levels.
Nov 2009Trade FacilitationBooks
Case Study on Aid Effectiveness in Tajikistan
This case study presents Tajikistan's perspective of, experiences with, and challenges to foreign aid. The objective of the study is to raise awareness about different dimensions of aid fragmentation, volatility and associated costs to help define the way to better coordinate official development assistance and private aid flows in Tajikistan.
(Rustam Aminjanov, Matin Kholmatov, Firuz Kataev / Wolfensohn Center for Development)
Oct 2009EconomyWorking papers
Energy Outlook for Asia and the Pacific
The publication aims to estimate, for each of the regional members of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the future demand for energy, supply options to 2030 for a business-as-usual scenario, investment requirements for meeting this demand, and the resulting CO2 emissions potential associated with increasing energy demand.
Oct 2009EnergyResearch and reports
Energy Statistics in Asia and the Pacific (1990-2006)
The publication attempts to consolidate energy statistics of the 48 ADB regional members in Asia and the Pacific. It provides insights on the recent energy situation of the region and provides information for stakeholders inside and outside the region to chart their future course of action in planning for energy investment, inclusive and sustainable development and poverty alleviation.
Oct 2009EnergyResearch and reports
Energy is Life: Bringing Power to Afghanistan
The publication reports on ADB's assistance to Afghanistan to strengthen the North East Power System and bring power to Kabul along a newly constructed transmission line from neighboring Uzbekistan. For the first time in more than a generation, the majority of the capital's 4 million people can now enjoy the benefits of power.
Oct 2009EnergyResearch and reports
Transport and Trade Logistics Development Strategies for CAREC: A Synopsis of Nine ADB Studies | РУССКИЙ | 中文
This synopsis summarizes the results and recommendations of nine studies supported by the Asian Development Bank. It provides an overview of the CAREC region (geography, population, natural resources, economy, and international trade); surveys issues and challenges in trade (deficiencies and inefficiencies in physical infrastructure, unsupportive policies and procedures); and measures to develop more efficient and competitive transport and logistics sectors.
Oct 2009Transport, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Azerbaijan: Trade Facilitation and Logistics Development Strategy Report
This report discusses the status and challenges of the transport and logistics sectors in Azerbaijan and recommends measures to strengthen these sectors. Efficient and cost-competitive transport and logistics sectors will help Azerbaijan to spur economic activity, engender social and political cohesion, and take full advantage of its geographical position to serve as a transit corridor between East and West.
(Andy Sze / ADB)
Oct 2009Transport, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Kazakhstan: Trade Facilitation and Logistics Development Strategy Report
This report discusses the status and challenges of the transport and logistics sectors in Kazakhstan and recommends measures to strengthen these sectors. Efficient and cost-competitive transport and logistics sectors will help Kazakhstan spur economic activity.
(Max Ee Khong Kie, Saltanat Akhmet / ADB)
Oct 2009Transport, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
The Kyrgyz Republic: Trade Facilitation and Logistics Development Strategy Report
This report discusses the status and challenges of the transport and logistics sectors in the Kyrgyz Republic and recommends measures to strengthen these sectors.
(Oleg Samukhin, Esengeldy Toguzbaev / ADB)
Oct 2009Transport, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Mongolia: Trade Facilitation and Logistics Development Strategy Report
This report discusses the status and challenges of the transport and logistics sectors in Mongolia and recommends measures to strengthen these sectors.
(Max Ee Khong Kie, Paige Lee Hwee Chen, Teo Puay Kim, Damdinjav Amarsaikhan, Dambiiyam Ochirbat / ADB)
Oct 2009Transport, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Tajikistan: Trade Facilitation and Logistics Development Strategy Report
This report discusses the status and challenges of the transport and logistics sectors in Tajikistan and recommends measures to strengthen these sectors.
(Max Ee Khong Kie, Boymurod Eshonov / ADB)
Oct 2009Transport, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Uzbekistan: Trade Facilitation and Logistics Development Strategy Report
This report discusses the status and challenges of the transport and logistics sectors in Uzbekistan and recommends measures to strengthen these sectors.
(Andy Sze / ADB)
Oct 2009Transport, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Regional Economic Outlook: Middle East and Central Asia (October 2009) | РУССКИЙ
The Outlook recognizes that the global economic crisis has taken a toll on the Middle East and Central Asia, but appropriate policy responses have helped mitigate the impact. Countries should continue to support domestic demand to lessen the impact of the crisis and focus on debt sustainability. For low-income countries, higher donor support will be needed to maintain economic development. Across the region, governments should further strengthen financial systems and sustain momentum on structural reforms. (Chapter 3 and Appendix in Russian)
(Middle East and Central Asia Department / IMF)
Oct 2009Economy, FinanceBooks
World Economic Outlook 2009: Sustaining the Recovery | РУССКИЙ
The Outlook sees global economic growth has turned positive but the recovery is expected to be slow. The key policy requirements remain to restore financial sector health while maintaining supportive macroeconomic policies until the recovery is on a firm footing. Policy makers, however, need to begin preparing for an orderly unwinding of extraordinary levels of public intervention. (Executive Summary in Russian)
Oct 2009Economy, FinanceBooks
Technical Assistance on Awareness and Prevention on HIV/AIDS and Human Trafficking - Final Report
This final report focuses on the awareness and prevention of the HIV/AIDS and human trafficking project implemented in Domogovi and Govisumber aimags in Mongolia. It discusses the project's structure, implementation strategy, intervention components, outcomes, sustainability, learned lessons, and recommendations.
Oct 2009OthersResearch and reports
World Development Report 2010: Development and Climate Change
This report recommends that advanced countries, which produced most of the greenhouse gas emissions of the past, must act to shape the world's climate future. If developed countries act now, a "climate-smart" world is feasible, and the costs for getting there will be high but still manageable. A key way to do this is by ramping up funding for mitigation in developing countries, where most future growth in emissions will occur.
(World Bank)
Sep 2009Economy, PovertyBooks
Doing Business 2010: Reforming through Difficult Times
This report records 287 reforms between June 2008 and May 2009, up 20% from the previous year. It says that Eastern Europe and Central Asia led all regions in the pace of these reforms. The region's 26 of 27 economies reformed regulations to create more opportunity for domestic firms.
(IFC, World Bank / World Bank)
Sep 2009Economy, Finance, Private SectorResearch and reports
Investment Guide to the Silk Road | 中文
This publication gives comprehensive introductory information about the investment climate and opportunities in the Silk Road region. Its primary goal is to encourage potential investors to explore in more detail their own ideas for possible regional investment projects.
Sep 2009Regional Cooperation, Transport, Trade Facilitation, Energy, Private SectorBooks
Asian Development Outlook 2009 Update: Broadening Openness of a Resilient Asia
The Update sees that developing Asia is proving to be more resilient to the global economic slowdown than was expected when the 2009 Outlook was published in March. The region's growth is somewhat stronger for both this year and next than was earlier forecast. The economic expansion for 2009 is projected to come in at 3.9%, up slightly from the March forecast of 3.4%; and the growth projection for 2010 is likewise upgraded to 6.4% from 6.0% in March.
Sep 2009EconomyBooks
CAREC Transport and Trade Facilitation: Partnership for Prosperity | РУССКИЙ
The publication presents the major elements of the strategy and the action plan, both of which support broad-based activities comprising competitive corridor development and management, trade facilitation, and sustainability enhancement by improving infrastructure, management, and technology, focusing on the six major corridors of the CAREC region.
Aug 2009Transport, Trade FacilitationCAREC Publications
Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2009: Enterprises in Asia: Fostering Dynamism in SMEs
This publication is the flagship annual statistical data book of the Asian Development Bank. It presents the latest available economic, financial, social, environmental, and Millennium Development Goal indicators for regional members. The special chapter—Enterprises in Asia: Fostering Dynamism in SMEs—looks at the impact of the current global economic crisis on small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and discusses how to foster greater dynamism in SMEs once the crisis has played out.
Aug 2009Economy, Regional CooperationBooks
Infrastructure for a Seamless Asia | РУССКИЙ | 中文
This study looks at regional infrastructure in Asia up to 2020 by presenting the major issues and challenges in developing regional infrastructure through the fostering of regional cooperation. It evaluates the existing infrastructure programs, policies, and institutions, and makes recommendations on how to develop and increase their effectiveness. It discusses both hard infrastructure (the long-term physical structures, equipment, and facilities, and the economic services they provide) and soft infrastructure (the policy, regulatory, and institutional frameworks that support the development and operation of physical infrastructure). (Executive Summary in Russian and Chinese)
(ADB and ADBI)
Aug 2009Transport, Regional CooperationResearch and reports
World Trade Report 2009 – Trade Policy Commitments and Contingency Measures
This edition examines the range of contingency measures available in trade agreements and the role that these measures play. Allowing governments a certain degree of flexibility within their trade commitments, these measures can be used to address circumstances that could not have been foreseen when a trade commitment was made. Contingency measures seek to strike a balance between commitments and flexibility.
(World Trade Organization)
Jul 2009Trade PolicyResearch and reports
The Effects of the Financial Crisis on Public-Private Partnerships
The paper investigates the impact of the global financial crisis on public-private partnerships (PPPs) and the circumstances under which providing support to new and existing projects is justified. Based on country evidence, cost of and access to finance are found to be the main channels of transmission of the financial crisis, affecting in particular pipeline PPP projects.
(Philippe Burger, Justin Tyson, I. Karpowicz, Maria Delgado Coelho / IMF)
Jul 2009Private Sector, FinanceWorking papers
Aid for Trade in Asia and the Pacific: An Update
This report provides an update on the WTO Aid for Trade initiative in Asia and the Pacific since the first Global Aid for Trade Review in November 2007. It covers the global economic crisis and evolving Aid for Trade needs in the region; a discussion of recent activities, focusing on those involving ADB; and next steps. It has a section on projects under the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Program.
Jul 2009Transport, Trade Facilitation, Regional CooperationResearch and reports
The EU and Central Asia: Commercialising the Energy Relationship
This paper aims to review the European Union's current energy needs and establish the role that Central Asia might play in helping to meet them. Central Asia will be an important component of the southern corridor project, which consists of two gas pipeline projects. The focus of interaction will be on gas and on Turkmenistan, as a supplementary supplier to the projected Nabucco pipeline. Such a project will increase the commercial and geopolitical options, and presumably the market power, of Central Asian exporters themselves.
(Michael Denison / EU-Central Asia Monitoring)
Jul 2009EnergyWorking papers
Competition Provisions in Regional Trade Agreements: Lessons for [the People's Republic of] China
This policy note reviews the international experience with competition provisions in regional trade agreements. It draws some possible lessons for the People's Republic of China as it pursues its regional trade strategy.
(World Bank)
Jun 2009Trade PolicyBriefs and notes
Environmental Provisions in Regional Trade Agreements: Lessons for [the People's Republic of] China
This policy note identifies the main contours of the trade and environment debate in the context of regional trade agreements. With People's Republic of China’s high reliance on trade, it may be increasingly in its interest to proactively engage its partners on environmental issues in its regional trade agreement negotiations.
(World Bank)
Jun 2009Trade PolicyBriefs and notes
Labor Mobility Provisions in Regional Trade Agreements: Lessons for [the People's Republic of] China
This policy note sees regional trade agreements as a promising avenue to address cross-border labor mobility. Developing countries such as the People's Republic of China, which want to expand openness to include semi-skilled workers, may find broader regional trade agreement provisions are of interest.
(World Bank)
Jun 2009Trade PolicyBriefs and notes
Restoring the Asian Silk Route: Toward an Integrated Asia
This paper argues that lack of full regional connectivity is one of the major constraints hindering regional growth and integration in Asia, as well as with the rest of the world. One of the conclusions of this paper is that Asia must strengthen its physical connectivity to make it a conduit for international trade through restoring Asian Silk Route.
(Biswa Bhattacharyay, Prabir De / ADB Institute)
Jun 2009Transport, Trade Facilitation, Regional CooperationWorking papers
Adapting to Climate Change in Europe and Central Asia
This report presents an overview of what adaptation to climate change might mean for Europe and Central Asia. It discusses emerging best practice adaptation planning around the world and a review of the latest climate projections. The report then discusses possible actions to improve resilience organized around impacts on natural resources (water, biodiversity, and the coastal environment), health, the “unbuilt” environment (agriculture and forestry), and the built environment (infrastructure and housing).
(Marianne Fay, Rachel Block, Tim Carrington, Jane Ebinger / World Bank)
Jun 2009OthersResearch and reports
CAREC Institute Foundation Study: Transport and Trade Facilitation
This study presents a consolidated picture of development projects on the transport and trade facilitation sectors in the CAREC region between 2000 and 2008. It focuses on actions funded by development agencies active in the region, providing an opportunity for all parties to share information and experience about their work in the region, seek more effective ways of coordination, and explore options for further collaboration.
(Michael Heppell / CAREC Institute)
Jun 2009Regional Cooperation, Transport, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Business and Trade Relationships Between the EU and Central Asia
This paper seeks to assess the state of trade relations between the European Union (EU) and Central Asia (with the exception of energy), the diversity of economic interests of each of the EU member states and of the different EU regions, and industries in which European companies are already well-established. The EU’s commercial involvement in Central Asia enables it to further European goals in the region.
(Sébastien Peyrouse / EU-Central Asia Monitoring)
Jun 2009Economy, Regional CooperationWorking papers
Bazaars and Trade Integration in CAREC Countries | РУССКИЙ
This report examines the role of bazaars in Central Asia. It finds that bazaars (i) are large business associations with infrastructure facilitating both domestic and international trade; (ii) play a major role in regional and national chains of production and distribution; (iii) contribute to lower costs of trade and prices of goods, higher trade volumes, and improved welfare; (iv) contribute to poverty alleviation; and (v) are a source of very significant positive externalities, such as creating opportunities to develop logistic and marketing skills.
(World Bank)
May 2009Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Deepening Integration in Border Regions within CAREC: The Asiaregio | РУССКИЙ
This paper finds strong demand at the local level in Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, and Tajikistan for deeper cooperation, but significant differences in policy approaches to economic development and foreign trade among countries. Based on the experience with the Euroregios, the paper noted the importance of broadening cross-border arrangements beyond trade.
(World Bank)
May 2009Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Regional Economic Outlook: Middle East and Central Asia (May 2009) | РУССКИЙ
The global crisis is now affecting the countries in the Middle East and Central Asia, and economic and financial vulnerabilities are rising. The report notes that countries should prepare for the contingency of a prolonged global slowdown by supporting domestic demand for a longer period and strengthening financial systems further. (Executive Summary in Russian)
(Middle East and Central Asia Department / IMF)
May 2009Economy, FinanceBooks
The Asian "Noodle Bowl": Is It Serious for Business?
The paper provides new evidence from surveys of East Asian firms suggesting that the Asian noodle bowl of multiple overlapping free trade agreement (FTAs) does not seem to have severely harmed the region's business activity to date. However, as more currently under negotiation FTAs take effect and the complexity of the Asian noodle bowl increases, the business impact is likely to intensify. Implementation of key policies and closer public-private sector cooperation can help mitigate negative effects and facilitate a more small and medium enterprise inclusive business response to FTAs.
(Masahiro Kawai, Ganeshan Wignaraja / ADB Institute)
Apr 2009Trade Policy, Private SectorWorking papers
The Global Economic Crisis: Challenges for Developing Asia and ADB's Response
This paper provides a brief overview of the evolving economic crisis in developing Asia and the Asian Development Bank's (ADB) response. Its sections discuss the main drivers of the crisis in the region and the major impacts on ADB's developing member countries (DMCs), the region's crisis response including actions and reforms already initiated by DMCs, the important policy issues the crisis has raised for developing Asia and summarizes the reforms DMCs should undertake to respond in the short run and to strengthen their resilience to external shocks in the longer term, and ADB's plan to help its DMCs restore sustained growth and social progress.
Apr 2009EconomyResearch and reports
Toll Roads Corporatization Strategy: Toward Better Governance
This report draws on extensive review, examination, and international experience to explore five key areas that impact corporatization and privatization policy: the separation of owner and service provider functions, competition, value-for-money, contract clarity, and transparency. A strategy of corporatization and privatization to assist the People's Republic of China finance a $250 billion expansion of its national highway network.
(Xiaohong Yang and John Lee / ADB)
Apr 2009TransportResearch and reports
Global Determinants of Stress and Risk in Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) in Infrastructure
This study aims to estimate the factors that account for the greatest level of stress in infrastructure projects with public-private partnerships, explain and analyze the severity of risks based on their observed impact on project outcomes, determine which countries offer the safest and riskiest medium- to long-run environments for PPP investments, among others.
(Renato E. Reside, Jr. / ADB Institute)
Mar 2009Private SectorWorking papers
Asian Development Outlook 2009: Rebalancing Asia's Growth
This is the 21st edition of the annual comprehensive economic report on the developing member economies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB). It recommends the rebalancing of economies to endure global downturn.
Mar 2009EconomyBooks
The EurAsEC Transport Corridors
This sector report provides an insight into the diverse problems associated with transit via the Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEC), such as competition in the transit transportation industry and the structure of competitive advantage in sea and land freight transit, identification of cargoes which can be transported via the international transport corridors, and analysis and elimination of physical and non-physical barriers.
(Evgeny Vinokurov, Murat Jadraliyev, Yuri Shcherbanin / Eurasian Development Bank)
Mar 2009Transport, Regional Cooperation, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Development of Small-Scale Non-Hydro Off-Grid Renewable Energy Systems in Tajikistan
The study describes the context of renewable energy and the available technologies in Tajikistan. The report also discusses the organizational dynamics between the main players in the field. The recommendations are based on interviews with stakeholders of the renewable energy market, such as energy experts, businesspeople, and representatives of international organizations.
(Bogdan Prokopovych / University of Rhode Island)
Mar 2009EnergyResearch and reports
Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific 2009
This survey - Addressing Triple threats to Development - analyzes how the financial, food/fuel, and climate change challenges have affected Asia and the Pacific and considers ways of addressing them. The convergence of the crises presents an opportunity for the region to reorient economic growth toward a long-term development path that is more inclusive and sustainable. Economies will be able to tackle these challenges best by bolstering national policy actions with key concerted region cooperation initiatives that in turn can serve as building blocks of a more inclusive multilateral system.
Mar 2009Economy, Regional CooperationBooks
Eurasian Energy Security
This policy brief, Council Special Report No. 43, illustrates the need for a coherent European energy policy and argues that the ongoing financial crisis provides a unique opportunity to tackle the issue. At the same time, it recognizes that European dependence on Russian energy will be a reality well into the future and that Europe can increase its energy security only by working with - not against - the Russian Federation.
(Jeffrey Mankoff / Council on Foreign Relations)
Feb 2009EnergyBriefs and notes
Lessons for Central Asia: Experience with Regional Economic Cooperation | РУССКИЙ
This third issue of CAREC Notes surveys the experience with regional organizations in developing countries and draws lessons which can be helpful for Central Asia, and specifically for the participants in CAREC. It concludes that regional cooperation underpinned by effective regional organizations is possible and brings considerable benefits to the CAREC participants.
(Johannes F. Linn, Oksana Pidufala / ADB)
Feb 2009Regional CooperationBriefs and notes
Chinese Investment in the Transition Economies
This paper examines the pattern and magnitude of [the People's Republic of] China's outward foreign direct investment (FDI) to the EBRD's countries of operations. Recent trends of PRC's outward FDI, with sector and geographical distributions, are analyzed, and the implications for the transition countries are assessed.
(Yevgeniya Korniyenko and Toshiaki Sakatsume / EBRD)
Feb 2009EconomyWorking papers
Central Asia Regional Risk Assessment
The report discusses ways by which the governments of Central Asia can prepare for, and manage, the compound threats to water, energy and food security.
Jan 2009EnergyResearch and reports
Understanding and Responding to Climate Change in Developing Asia
To better align ADB's investments and associated policy and institutional support with the priorities of its developing member countries relating to climate and development, the five regional departments has drafted a Climate Change Implementation Plan to mitigate greenhouse emissions and to adapt to climate change impacts. This report summarizes the recommendations of the regional plans and outlines ongoing and planned interventions to help build low-carbon, climate resilient economies in Asia and the Pacific.
2009OthersResearch and reports
Infrastructure's Role in Lowering Asia's Trade Costs: Building for Trade
Infrastructure is shown to be a cost-effective means of lowering trade costs and thereby promoting regional growth and integration. This book combines thematic and country studies, while breaking new ground in quantifying infrastructure's impact on Asia's trade costs. It also contributes to a better understanding of the region's logistics challenges.
(Douglas Brooks, David Hummels (eds.) / ADB Institute)
2009Transport, Trade FacilitationBooks
Central Asia and Caucasus Disaster Risk Management Initiative (CAC DRMI): Risk assessment for Central Asia and Caucasus | РУССКИЙ
This desk review presents an initiative to reduce Central Asia and the Caucasus' (CAC) vulnerability to the risk of disasters. It analyses disaster risks at the country, subregional and regional levels. It also analyses transboundary disaster risks and their effects; projected losses in the absence of mitigation measures; and climate change assessment, hazard risk management status of CAC countries, regional and international initiatives, population growth and migration patterns, economic and physical developments, and urban expansion and rural development.
(World Bank, UNISDR, CAREC)
2009OthersResearch and reports
Mitigating the Adverse Financial Effects of Natural Hazards on the Economies of Central Asia | РУССКИЙ
This study comprises a review of government post-disaster safety nets as well as those provided by the private insurance market in Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. It aims to assess the extent to which the existing intracountry government-funded social safety nets and the private insurance industry can cope with the adverse financial effects of disasters caused by the impact of natural hazards on the regional economy.
(World Bank, UNISDR, CAREC)
2009OthersResearch and reports
Eurasian Integration Yearbook 2009
This publication chronicles regional integration events in 2008. It features three papers on institutional integration and its relation to economic growth, a review of growing cooperation in the financial sector, and an overview of the activities of international and regional development banks in the region.
(Eurasian Development Bank)
2009Regional Cooperation, Transport, Trade Facilitation, EconomyBooks
Challenges and Opportunities for Trade and Financial Integration in Asia and the Pacific
This book explores various aspects of trade and financial integration in Asia and the Pacific, the reasons for the lack of it, and potential benefits of strengthening such integration. The book focuses on the exploration of challenges and opportunities that exist in intra-regional trade in goods, integration in services trade, availability of trade finance, as well as inflows of portfolio investments.
2009Regional Cooperation, Trade FacilitationBooks
Linking Asia's Trade, Logistics, and Infrastructure
Infrastructure services play a vital role in facilitating Asia's export-led growth by keeping the prices of delivered goods in export markets competitive. This paper shows how Asia's trade patterns are characterized by a high degree of intraregional trade, particularly for geographically fragmented production networks. This is both in response to, and with implications for, further infrastructure development. The challenges of providing efficient logistical support rise as countries move into progressively more complex and higher-value manufacturing, and as production processes become increasingly fragmented.
(Douglas Brooks / ADB Institute)
Dec 2008Transport, Trade FacilitationWorking papers
Asia's Infrastructure Challenges: Issues of Institutional Capacity
Strong infrastructure has often been cited as a major factor contributing to the Asian region's substantial growth over the past several decades, and an important competitive advantage over other developing regions. However, a decline in spending over the past 10 years has raised concerns that this infrastructure-derived competitive advantage is eroding. The paper suggests strong investment in infrastructure as well as focus on facilitation and training to support continuing efforts to achieve overall growth as well as poverty reduction.
(Susan Stone / ADB Institute)
Dec 2008Transport, Capacity DevelopmentWorking papers
Regional Economic Prospects 2009: Europe and Central Asia
This chapter on Europe and Central Asia of the World Bank's Global Economic Prospects Report 2009: Commodities at the Crossroads highlights the region's recent developments and its diverse performance in 2008 and provides a medium-term outlook.
(World Bank)
Dec 2008EconomyResearch and reports
Global Economic Prospects 2009: Commodities at the Crossroads
This year’s Global Economic Prospects finds the global economy at a crossroads, transitioning from a sustained period of very strong developing country–led growth to one of substantial uncertainty as a financial crisis rooted in high-income countries has shaken financial markets worldwide. Commodity markets too are at a crossroads with the very high prices of 2007 and early 2008 having fallen by more than half in many instances.
(World Bank)
Dec 2008Economy, PovertyResearch and reports
Country Report on International Migrants' Remittances and Poverty in the Kyrgyz Republic
The research study determines the impact of remittances on household welfare in the Kyrgyz Republic. It is the first study encompassing the entire country and characterizing behavior of remittance-receiving households and remittance effects on the welfare of the households.
(Shamsia Ibragimova, Temir Burzhubaev, Adyljan Temirov / ADB)
Dec 2008Poverty, FinanceResearch and reports
Country Report on Remittances of International Migrants and Poverty in Azerbaijan
This report presents findings on the impact of remittances on poverty in Azerbaijan to various stakeholders. It aims to help fill the existing gaps in the knowledge about remittances and be useful to the government in designing policies that will enhance positive effects of remittances on poverty reduction in the country.
(Vagif Rustamov / ADB)
Dec 2008Poverty, FinanceResearch and reports
Country Report on Remittances of International Migrants and the Financial Sector in Kazakhstan
This report presents findings on Kazakhstan's remittance flows, the market for remittance transfers services, and the financial sector. It aims to assist the government in designing policy and regulatory reforms to increase the share of remittance flows going through formal channels and enhance their positive effect on the development of the financial sector.
(Meruert Makhmutova, Anara Makatova, Aitolkyn Kourmanova, Umidjon Abdullaev, Maria Dienova, Bakhtiyar Bakas Uuly / ADB)
Dec 2008Poverty, FinanceResearch and reports
Country Report on Remittances of International Migrants and the Financial Sector in the Kyrgyz Republic
This report is a country study on the financial sector and remittances in the Kyrgyz Republic. It aims to analyze the impact of remittances on the macroeconomic situation and on financial sector development.
(Roman Mogilevsky, Aziz Atamanov / ADB)
Dec 2008Poverty, FinanceResearch and reports
Country Report on Remittances of International Migrants in Tajikistan
This report assesses the effects of remittances on poverty and examines the relationship between remittances and financial sector development. It aims to present the impact of remittances on the economy; evaluate the impact of remittances and labor migration on household consumption, saving behavior, and investment; and define the connection between money remittances and poverty alleviation and income inequality.
(Richard Brown, Saodat Olimova, Muhammadi Boboev / ADB)
Dec 2008Poverty, FinanceResearch and reports
Regional Cooperation, Infrastructure, and Trade Costs in Asia
This study explores the nexus between Asia’s trade flows and patterns, trade costs and how they are influenced by infrastructure development, and the role of regional cooperation in facilitating trade’s contribution to economic integration. A virtuous circle between growth, infrastructure investment, trade expansion, and regional integration is elucidated.
(Douglas H. Brooks / ADB Institute)
Dec 2008Trade Facilitation, Transport, Regional CooperationWorking papers
Caucasus Transport Corridor for Oil and Oil Products
This study evaluates the potential demand for transport of oil and oil products via the existing rail corridor in the Caucasus, taking into consideration the competition from alternative routes. It identifies potential bottlenecks that would prevent potential traffic from using the corridor and proposes solutions for physical and operational improvements to the corridor needed to attract potential traffic.
(World Bank)
Dec 2008Energy, TransportResearch and reports
Living with HIV in Eastern Europe and CIS: The Human Cost of Social Exclusion | РУССКИЙ
This special report is the result of a broader effort to identify barriers to social inclusion and full integration of people living with HIV in society – focusing on health care, education, and employment, and other sectors of society. The report also provides links to broader developmental issues related to AIDS, such as human development, demographic patterns and trends, human rights, gender, and migration. It is released in conjunction with both World AIDS Day and the 60th Anniversary of the signing of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
(Don Operario / UNDP)
Dec 2008OthersBooks
World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography
This report challenges the assumption that economic activities must be spread geographically to benefit the world’s most poor and vulnerable. Trying to spread out economic activity can hinder growth and does little to fight poverty. For rapid, shared growth, governments must promote economic integration which, at its core, is about the mobility of people, products, and ideas.
(World Bank)
Nov 2008Economy, PovertyBooks
Potential Economic Impact of CAREC Corridor 1b | РУССКИЙ
This second issue of CAREC Notes presents detailed estimates for economic impacts of a large road corridor project in Kazakhstan. Using a forward-looking general equilibrium assessment model, the author estimates direct and indirect effects of this new transport infrastructure, including trade facilitation, transport cost reduction, and the effects of increased productivity in trade and transport services for sectors using these services intensively.
(David Roland-Holst / ADB)
Nov 2008Transport, EconomyBriefs and notes
Transition Report 2008: Growth in Transition | РУССКИЙ
This report presents the main economic and reform developments in EBRD’s countries of operations in 2007 and 2008. It also includes an assessment of how the global financial crisis is affecting the transition in the region. With growth as the special theme, it looks at the roles that education, competition policy, and export structure can play in shaping a country's long-term growth performance, and examines the experience and potential role of industrial policy in the region.
Nov 2008EconomyResearch and reports
Afghanistan's Trade with CAREC Neighbors: Evidence from Surveys of Border Crossing Points in Hairatan and Sher Khan Bandar | РУССКИЙ
This report summarizes the results of surveys carried out on the Afghan side in May 2008 at two border crossing points (BCPs), Hairatan, linking Afghanistan and Uzbekistan, and Sher Khan Bandar, linking Afghanistan and Tajikistan. Since the bulk of trade with all CAREC members, except for Azerbaijan, People's Republic of China, and Mongolia, goes through these BCPs, they provide a good vantage point to gain a better understanding of this trade and constraints it faces.
(World Bank)
Oct 2008Trade PolicyResearch and reports
The Experience with Regional Economic Cooperation Organizations: Lessons for Central Asia
Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asia has witnessed repeated efforts to strengthen regional integration through cooperation with the establishment of a number of regional organizations with Central Asian participation. This paper reviews the experience with regional cooperation initiatives and organizations in Central Asia and the rest of the world.
(Johannes F. Linn, Oksana Pidufala / The Brookings Institution)
Oct 2008Regional CooperationWorking papers
Improving Trade and Transport for Landlocked Developing Countries: World Bank contributions to implementing the Almaty Programme of Action
This report offers the World Bank's perspective on progress in implementing the Almaty Programme of Action. The report provides an update on the access of Landlocked Developing Countries to global markets highlighting new directions to reach the Almaty objectives.
(World Bank)
Oct 2008Trade Facilitation, TransportWorking papers
Regional Economic Outlook: Middle East and Central Asia (Oct 2008) | РУССКИЙ
This edition underlines that the region has continued to experience strong growth in 2008, and the short-term outlook is generally favorable. However, inflation has emerged as a key issue, and while the global credit crunch has thus far had a limited impact on regional financial markets, the financial turmoil and slowdown in developed economies could lower growth in the period ahead. (Highlights in Russian)
(Middle East and Central Asia Department / IMF)
Oct 2008Economy, FinanceBooks
Global Financial Stability Report—Financial Stress and Deleveraging: Macrofinancial Implications and Policy (Oct 2008) | РУССКИЙ | 中文
This report assesses key issues in global financial market developments with a view to identifying systemic vulnerabilities. By calling attention to fault lines in the global financial system, the report generally seeks to play a role in preventing crises and, when they occur, helping to mitigate their effects and offer policy advice. (Full text in Chinese, Executive Summary in Russian)
Oct 2008FinanceBooks
World Economic Outlook—Financial Stress, Downturns, and Recoveries (Oct 2008) | РУССКИЙ | 中文
This book looks at the world economy's major downturn in the face of the most dangerous financial shock in mature financial markets since the 1930s. Global growth is projected to slow substantially in 2008 and a modest recovery would only begin later in 2009. Inflation is high, but is expected to moderate. The situation is exceptionally uncertain and subject to considerable downside risks. The immediate policy challenge is to stabilize financial conditions, while nursing economies through a period of slow activity and keeping inflation under control.
Oct 2008Finance, EconomyBooks
Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEC): Legal Aspects of Regional Trade Integration
This paper recognizes the attributes of the Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEC) as an international organization and discusses the legal foundations of the free trade regime and the customs union in EurAsEC. It also tackles issues related to the World Trade Organization (WTO), particularly the future accession of five EurAsEC members and the WTO-compatibility of the EurAsEC customs union.
(Sherzod Shadikhodjaev / Korea Institute for International Economic Policy)
Sep 2008Regional Cooperation, Trade PolicyWorking papers
Public-Private Partnership Handbook | РУССКИЙ
This handbook provides an overview of the role, design, structure, and execution of public-private partnerships (PPPs) for infrastructure development. It addresses a range of matters associated with PPPs, from policy considerations to implementation issues. It is also meant as an introduction to the design and execution of PPP strategies and projects in the context of development finance.
Sep 2008Private SectorBooks
Trade Elasticities in the Middle East and Central Asia: What is the Role of Oil?
This paper examines the potential role a substantial real appreciation of the currencies of oil-exporting countries in the Middle East and Central Asia, could play in moderating these countries' current account surpluses and, in the process, contribute to a narrowing of global imbalances.
(Dalia Hakura, Andreas Billmeier / IMF)
Sep 2008Energy, Trade Policy, EconomyWorking papers
Doing Business in Landlocked Economies 2009: Comparing regulation in 38 countries
This report analyzes the ease of doing business in 38 landlocked economies. Overall, landlocked economies have an average ranking of 107 out of 181 economies covered by the global Doing Business 2009 report.
(IFC, World Bank)
Sep 2008Economy, Finance, Private SectorResearch and reports
Asian Development Outlook 2008 Update
This update to April 2008's publication presents four thematic chapters discussing recent global commodity price rises and their impacts on developing Asia. It suggests that high international commodity prices are here to stay.
Sep 2008EconomyBooks
Sociological Survey Report on CAREC Transport Corridor 1 (Bishkek-Torugart Road) Project
This survey report presents the results of sociological field research; interviews with interested key persons at oblast, rayon, and village levels; and public hearings with interested persons of design zone. It aims to find out attitudes of the population to Bishkek–Torugart road rehabilitation and their opinions and appraisals regarding implementation of the project.
(Raya Osmonalieva / ADB)
Sep 2008TransportResearch and reports
Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2008: Comparing Poverty Across Countries: The Role of Purchasing Power Parities
This publication is the flagship annual statistical data book of the Asian Development Bank. It presents the latest available economic, financial, social, environmental, and Millennium Development Goal indicators for regional members. The special chapter—Comparing Poverty Across Countries: The Role of Purchasing Power Parities—sheds light on how alternative approaches to compiling purchasing power parities influence internationally comparable estimates of poverty.
Aug 2008Economy, Regional CooperationBooks
China and Central and Eastern European Countries: Regional Networks, Global Supply Chain, or International Competitors?
This paper uses a panel data set to investigate whether foreign direct investment (FDI) flows to these two regions are complements, substitutes, or independent of each other. Results suggest that FDI flows are driven by distinct regional production networks (and thus are largely independent of each other) and the development of global supply chains (indicating that FDI flows are complementary).
(K.C. Fung, Iikka Korhonen, Ke Li, Francis Ng / World Bank)
Aug 2008Regional Cooperation, EconomyWorking papers
The CIS Common Electric Power Market
This sector report looks at the opportunities and integration initiatives in creating a common electric power market among member countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) as well as of the Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEC).
(Evgeny Vinokurov / Eurasian Development Bank)
Aug 2008Energy, Regional CooperationResearch and reports
Design Review Report on CAREC Transport Corridor 1 (Bishkek-Torugart Road) project
This consultant's report reviews engineering designs prepared by the Ministry of Transport and Communications (MOTC), and assists the ADB missions in technical discussions with the MOTC and finalizing the improvement options of the project. It also reviews existing reports and feasibility studies, and field survey, including visual survey, soils investigation, axle load measurements, compliance of drawings to the real situation on site, etc.
(Almaz Turgunbaev / ADB)
Aug 2008TransportResearch and reports
World Trade Report 2008 – Trade in a Globalizing World
This edition addresses a range of interlinking questions, starting with a consideration of what constitutes globalization, what drives it, what benefits does it bring, what challenges does it pose and what role does trade play in this world of ever-growing interdependency. It asks why some countries have managed to take advantage of falling trade costs and greater policy-driven trading opportunities while others have remained largely outside international commercial relations.
(World Trade Organization)
Jul 2008Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Credit Growth in the Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia Region
This paper discusses the rapid private sector credit growth in the Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia as a result of strong economic growth, financial deepening, and banks' willingness to explore consumer credit markets.
(Joseph Crowley / IMF)
Jul 2008Finance, EconomyWorking papers
Innovation, Inclusion, and Integration: From Transition to Convergence in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union | РУССКИЙ
This report proposes that countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union have put the crisis of the 1990s behind them. They need to innovate, include all their citizens in the development of their countries, and integrate with the broader global economy if they want to sustain growth. (Overview in Russian)
(Pradeep Mitra / World Bank)
Jul 2008Regional Cooperation, Economy, PovertyResearch and reports
Environmental Assessment Report on CAREC Transport Corridor 1 (Bishkek-Torugart Road) project
This initial environmental examination has been prepared for the Dolon Pass–Akbeit Pass section of the proposed Bishkek–Naryn–Torugart road. It describes the baseline environmental conditions, including physical, ecological and socioeconomic resources along the road; assesses environmental impacts of the intended road development; and provides remedial/mitigation measures.
(Ministry of Transport and Communications (Kyrgyz Republic) / ADB)
Jul 2008TransportResearch and reports
Infrastructure and Asia's Trade Costs
Infrastructure has played a key role in Asia's export-led rapid growth, but the details of that contribution are poorly understood even though infrastructure accounts for huge amounts of investment. This policy brief examines and quantifies the role of hard and soft infrastructure in reducing Asia's trade costs and thereby influencing trade flows and patterns.
(Douglas Brooks / ADB Institute)
Jun 2008Transport, Trade FacilitationBriefs and notes
The Determinants of Performance in Building Infrastructure in Transition Economies
This paper investigates how contract specificities affect the performance of municipal infrastructure projects in transportation, district heating, water, waste water and solid waste. Using data from EBRD-financed projects, the paper looks at the effect of involving private parties with different degrees of risk, and involving public parties other than the respective municipality.
(Gabriela Dobrescu, Guido Friebel, Pauline Grosjean, and Katrin Robeck / EBRD)
Jun 2008Transport, Energy, Economy, Private SectorWorking papers
Whose Rules Rule? Everyday Border and Water Conflicts in Central Asia
The aim of this study is to provide an operationally relevant regional study of the key cross-border conflict issues that affect communities in Central Asia and the ways in which these conflicts are mitigated.
(Kathleen Kuehnast, Nora Dudwick, Mari Clarke, Anna O'Donnell, Sheetal Rana / World Bank)
May 2008Trade Policy, Energy, Regional CooperationWorking papers
Regional Integration in Central Asia: A Firm-centered View
This paper provides a firm-centered perspective on regional integration. It first considers how the variety of political economies of Central Asian countries influence the regionalization process through economic networks established by private actors, and how institutions are shaped by regionalization. Second, it considers how political institutions determine the impact of informal networks on formal regional integration initiatives, and looks at the potential effect of formal regionalism on regionalization process in Central Asia.
(Alexander Libman / Munich Personal RePEc Archive)
May 2008Regional CooperationResearch and reports
Regional Economic Outlook: Middle East and Central Asia (May 2008) | РУССКИЙ
The Middle East and Central Asia region grew at 6.5% in 2007, marking its best 5-year performance over the past 30 years. So far, the turmoil in international financial markets has had a limited impact on the region, and the short-term outlook remains very favorable. The report reviews recent economic developments, assesses the outlook for the coming year, and discusses key policy challenges. (Highlights in Russian)
(Middle East and Central Asia Department / IMF)
May 2008Finance, EconomyBooks
Unleashing Prosperity: Productivity Growth in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union
This report integrates an impressive array of data sets to assess the macro, sectoral, and micro underpinnings of productivity growth in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. It builds on aggregate estimates of productivity comparable across countries and over time. It then explores industry and firm-level heterogeneity to understand more clearly the roots of observed aggregate economic performance.
(Asad Alam, Paloma Anos Casero, Faruk Khan, Charles Udomsaph / World Bank)
May 2008EconomyResearch and reports
Securing Sustainable Energy in Transition Economies
This brochure underscores that there is significant scope to reduce the carbon footprint of the energy sector in the transition region. It also introduces a new monitoring tool, the Index of Sustainable Energy, which allows policymakers to benchmark individual countries' progress in energy reform.
Apr 2008EnergyOthers
Development and Transition, 9th issue, "Energy and the Environment"
The ninth issue of the Development and Transition newsletter focuses on questions of energy and the environment in Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. The issue discusses, among others, land degradation in Central Asia, reforestation in Uzbekistan, and potential floods in Tajikistan.
Apr 2008Energy, OthersOthers
Global Financial Stability Report: Containing Systemic Risks and Restoring Financial Soundness (Apr 2008) | РУССКИЙ | 中文
In the past 6 months, the fragility of the global financial system was demonstrated and raised questions about the effectiveness of the response by private and public sector institutions. The report assesses the vulnerabilities that the system is facing and offers tentative conclusions and policy lessons. The report reflects information available up to 21 March 2008. (Full text in Chinese, Executive Summary in Russian)
Apr 2008FinanceBooks
Water and Energy Resources in Central Asia: Utilization and Development Issues
This sector report discusses resolving the issues of shared utilization of water and power resources in Central Asia and the management of water and energy resources and leverage of significant long-term investment in hydro energy projects.
(Eurasian Development Bank)
Apr 2008EnergyResearch and reports
Nuclear Energy Complexes in Russia and Kazakhstan: Prospects for Development and Cooperation
This industry report recommends to integrate the nuclear power complexes of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation along the entire production chain as a logical response to their urgent need to reduce their energy deficit, and to the synergies which exist between their production capacities and technologies at each stage of the nuclear fuel production chain.
(Evgeny Vinokurov / Eurasian Development Bank)
Apr 2008EnergyResearch and reports
Joint Study on Developing Euro-Asian Transport Linkages
The study identifies the main Euro-Asian inland transport routes and the prioritized 230 projects along these routes. It incorporates the development of a Geographic Information System database and maps.
(UNECE, UNESCAP / United Nations)
Feb 2008Transport, EconomyResearch and reports
How Kyrgyzstan has seized Opportunities offered by Central Asia’s Economic Recovery
This draft background paper for Kyrgyz Republic: Country Economic Memorandum 2008 discusses the integration of the Kyrgyz Republic toward Central Asia and the Russian Federation. It has a much stronger expansion in trade and finance with Central Asian economies, particularly with Kazakhstan, which has become a major source of foreign direct investment.
(Bartlomiej Kaminski / World Bank)
Feb 2008Economy, Regional CooperationResearch and reports
Regionalism and Trade Facilitation: A Primer
This paper investigates when trade facilitation reform should be undertaken at the regional level. The lessons are that regional trade agreements offer good prospects of comprehensive and effective reform and can effectively complement multilateral and national initiatives.
(Jean-Christophe Maur / World Bank)
Jan 2008Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, Regional CooperationWorking papers
Regional Approaches in Central Asia to Technical Barriers to Trade
The study identifies key sanitary and phytosanitary measures and technical barriers to trade issues in Central Asia and suggests options for regional approaches to address these issues.
(UNESCAP / United Nations)
2008Trade Facilitation, Regional CooperationResearch and reports
Capacity Development in Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States 2008
This report presents an overview of the United Nations Development Programme's (UNDP) capacity development work in 2008. The UNDP works with national and local governments and citizens to develop capacities that support national priorities, with a strategic and country-led approach.
2008Capacity DevelopmentResearch and reports
Trade and Human Development: How to Conduct Trade Needs Assessments in Transition Economies | РУССКИЙ
This guide is designed to help policymakers, trade officials and researchers conduct needs assessment studies on trade and human development under the Aid for Trade initiative conceived at the 2005 World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference in Hong Kong. Despite the variations between countries and the challenges of linking trade and human development, it is possible to identify a number of analytical tools for conducting an assessment. The guide aims to show how this can be done with a focus on transition economies.
2008Trade Policy, Capacity DevelopmentResearch and reports
Social Enterprise: A new model for poverty reduction and employment generation
This report finds that traditional development initiatives in post-communist states often focus on bolstering the private sector or the state, while ignoring organizations that combine for-profit activities with social aims. It suggests a number of ways to promote social enterprises in transition countries.
2008Poverty, OthersResearch and reports
Japan's Silk Road Diplomacy: Paving the Road Ahead
This publication examines Japan’s interest, role, and contribution in Central Asia. This represents the effort of a group of authors who have sought to clarify Japan's role in Central Asia from both the Japanese and Central Asian perspectives.
(Christopher Len, Uyama Tomohiko, Hirose Tetsuya (eds.) / Central Asia–Caucaus Institute and Silk Road Studies Program)
2008Regional CooperationBooks
Kazakhstan: The Road to Independence - Energy Policy and the Birth of a Nation
This publication reviews the development and future prospects of independent Kazakhstan and explores its politics and the national economy, with particular attention to the energy sector. It also reviews the country’s oil, natural gas, electricity, and nuclear industries in detail.
(Ariel Cohen / Central Asia–Caucaus Institute and Silk Road Studies Program)
2008Economy, EnergyBooks
Enhancing Financial Disclosure Standards in Transitional Economies
This book is a compendium of the findings, activities, results, and recommendations of the Asian Development Bank's technical assistance grant to enhance financial disclosure standards of four transitional economies - Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Mongolia, and Uzbekistan.
(R. Narasimhan, E. Adhami / ADB)
Weather and Climate Services in Europe and Central Asia - A Regional Review | РУССКИЙ
This paper reviews the status of weather and climate services in Europe and Central Asia. Worldwide, the accuracy and value of weather and climate services are rising, bringing great economic benefits. However, many national hydrometeorological services (NMHSs) in Europe and Central Asia are in decline.
(World Bank)
2008OthersWorking papers
CAREC Institute Work Plan 2009-2011 | РУССКИЙ
The CAREC Institute is envisaged to generate knowledge, deliver training, and expand understanding of issues relevant to strengthening regional economic cooperation as an important objective. Its work plan, its first, covers the period 2009-2011. It has six parts: (i) guiding principles; (ii) focus areas; (iii) professional development and training program; (iv) research program; (v) outreach and dialogue program; and (vi) resources.
2008Regional CooperationOthers
Implementation Action Plan for the Transport and Trade Facilitation Strategy | РУССКИЙ
The Implementation Action Plan, 2008–2017, supports the Transport and Trade Facilitation Strategy’s goal of strengthening the region’s competitiveness and expanding trade among CAREC economies and with the rest of the world. It focuses on the development of the six CAREC corridors identified in the strategy.
2008Transport, Trade FacilitationOthers
Investment and Technical Assistance Project Profiles | РУССКИЙ
This paper provides the profiles of the investment and technical assistance projects in the six CAREC corridors. It serves as supplementary information to the Implementation Action Plan of the Transport and Trade Facilitation Strategy.
Trade Policy Strategic Action Plan | РУССКИЙ
This strategy aims to achieve a more open economy, a necessary step toward effective development and poverty reduction. Under this objective, the two main areas of action are to support efforts to achieve World Trade Organization membership and to simplify and liberalize the trade regime. The second objective is capacity building and knowledge transfer related to trade and trade policy.
2008Trade PolicyOthers
Strategy for Regional Cooperation in the Energy Sector of CAREC Countries | РУССКИЙ
The strategy seeks to enable the development of best solutions to meet future energy demand and promote development of new energy resources for the CAREC region and for exports by exploiting the potential for mutually beneficial gains among the participating countries.
2008Energy, Regional CooperationOthers
Eurasian Integration Yearbook 2008
The 2008 edition is the first issue of this annual publication, and the articles discuss a wide range of subjects, including the sustainability of regional integration projects; the economic integration of the machine-building, banking, and energy industries; and the measuring of regional integration and economic development.
(Evgeny Vinokurov, ed. / Eurasian Development Bank)
2008Regional CooperationBooks
Connections to Prosperity: Transport and Trade Facilitation in the CAREC Program | РУССКИЙ
Central Asia rebuilds the ancient transport and trade routes that once connected Eurasia, the region is poised to recapture its place as a center of trade and commerce. Under the CAREC Program, a further $21 billion in investments will energize a new network of six transport and trade corridors that will connect the major economic centers of the region. This brochure highlights that in 2008-2012, major transport investments will focus on Corridors 1 and 2.
2008Transport, Trade FacilitationOthers
Review of Maritime Transport 2007
This edition identifies the main developments in world maritime transport and provides relevant statistical data. It focuses on developments concerning maritime activities in developing countries as compared to other groups of countries. It also highlights the correlation between the development of global trade and maritime transport activities in general. Regional developments in Asia are the subject of this year’s special chapter.
Dec 2007Transport, Trade FacilitationBooks
World Trade Report 2007 – Sixty Years of Multilateral Trading System: Achievements and Challenges
This edition reviews what the multilateral trading system has achieved in 6 decades and what remains to be done. It also provides brief analytical commentaries on certain topical trade issues, and looks at 10 years of the Information Technology Agreement and global imbalances and world trade
(World Trade Organization)
Dec 2007Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Regional Trade Integration in Central Asia: The way to modernize, attract investment and new technologies
The paper looks at regional implementation of trade facilitation measures and harmonization and implementation of free trade agreements among Central Asian countries to achieve regional trade integration.
(UNECE, UNESCAP / United Nations)
Nov 2007Trade Facilitation, Regional Cooperation, Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Role of Global Value Chains: Accessing Markets, Technology, Experience | РУССКИЙ
This first issue of CAREC Notes introduces the global value chain concept and outlines some of the opportunities and implications for CAREC enterprises. Involvement in global value chains could provide access to new markets as well as the technological, managerial, and market-related know how of leading international businesses.
(George Abonyi / ADB)
Nov 2007Private Sector, Trade FacilitationBriefs and notes
CAREC Capacity Building | РУССКИЙ
This brochure is published for the Sixth Ministerial Conference on Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation in November 2007. It features capacity building activities of the CAREC Program.
Nov 2007Regional Cooperation, Capacity DevelopmentOthers
Infrastructure and Regional Cooperation
Continuing Asia's extraordinary transformation will require increasing attention on regional connectivity and logistic systems. This paper focuses on the role of cross-border infrastructure in the process of regional integration in developing Asia. Given that most cross-border infrastructure projects are very complex, actions will need to be taken by various stakeholders in connecting Asia.
(Rita Nangia, Masahiro Kawai, Haruhiko Kuroda / ADB Institute)
Sep 2007Transport, Regional CooperationWorking papers
The Economic Aspects of the Chinese–Central Asia Rapprochement
This paper analyzes the development of the People’s Republic of China's (PRC) economic engagement with Central Asia. Although the commercial exchanges between the PRC and Central Asia are still in their infancy, they already show a lot of promise and have burgeoned over the last few years: between 2002 and 2005, the volume of trade between the two zones tripled. For landlocked Central Asia, the PRC is thus destined to play a major role in the 21st century in opening up the region.
(Sébastien Peyrous / Central Asia-Caucasus Institute & Silk Road Studies Program)
Sep 2007Energy, Regional Cooperation, Trade Facilitation, EconomyResearch and reports
Quantitative Restrictions on Trade | РУССКИЙ
This paper assesses the current incidence of quantitative restrictions (QRs) in CAREC member countries. Licensing of imports or exports or the use of exchange controls have been concomitants of QRs. Increasingly the licensing rules have been allowed to fall into disuse as vehicles for quantitative regulation and their current applicability will not be exhaustively covered in this paper, although they remain a source of unnecessarily high trade costs.
(Richard Pomfret / ADB)
Sep 2007Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Integrating Environment in Key Economic Sectors in Europe and Central Asia
This paper examines the trade-offs involved in environmental mainstreaming, drawing upon experience from World Bank lending operations over the past 15 years to explore how the trade-offs and challenges have been handled and also where mainstreaming has been more and less successful, and why. It reviews operations in five economic sectors which are particularly significant in terms of their potential environmental impacts and the urgency of integrating environmental sustainability in policies and programs: energy, extractive industries, transport, agriculture, and forest management.
(A. Kiss, R. Cestti, J. Ebinger, A. Eftimie, A. Mirzagalyamova, A. Delarue, E. Montanari Stephens, D. Kapanadze / World Bank)
Sep 2007EnergyResearch and reports
Cross-Border Trade within the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation
This report, based on surveys of cross-border trading conditions, profiles the key features of cross-border trade and its employment and income effects. Its focus lies in its analysis of the impact of government interventions that facilitate or impede cross-border trade by inter alia affecting the movement of local people, vehicles, and goods between the CAREC countries.
(World Bank)
Aug 2007Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Landlockedness, Infrastructure and Trade: New Estimates for Central Asian Countries
This paper assesses the impact of internal infrastructure and landlockedness on Central Asian trade. The findings highlight the need to pursue a dual policy agenda: first, transit corridors should be managed as regional public goods; second, the Central Asian countries should diversify their transit corridors to prevent monopoly positions and bottleneck points such as trans-shipment platforms.
(Christopher Grigoriou / World Bank)
Aug 2007Trade Facilitation, Transport, Trade PolicyWorking papers
Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2007: Inequality in Asia
This publication is the flagship annual statistical data book of the Asian Development Bank. It presents the latest available economic, financial, social, environmental, and Millennium Development Goal indicators for regional members. The special chapter—Inequality in Asia—discusses widening inequalities in standards of living in developing Asia, despite the fact that Asia is growing at some of the fastest rates in the world. It also voices concern about the poor being bypassed by growth.
Aug 2007Economy, Regional CooperationBooks
Private Participation in Infrastructure in Europe and Central Asia—A Look at Recent Trends
This issue of Gridlines examines recent trends in private participation in infrastructure projects in Europe and Central Asia. In 2005, investment commitments to infrastructure projects, with private participation in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, reached $35 billion.
(Maria Vagliasindi, Ada Karina Izaguirre / Public–Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility)
Aug 2007Energy, TransportBriefs and notes
Fiscal Policy and Economic Growth: Lessons from Eastern Europe and Central Asia | РУССКИЙ
This study explores public finance policies in the transition countries of Europe and Central Asia and their likely effects on economic growth. It tackles broad questions such as the impact of fiscal deficits, government size, quality of public spending, and structure of taxation on growth, and it explores several key areas of public spending and taxation in detail.
(Cheryl Gray, Tracey Lane, Aristomene Varoudakis (eds.) / World Bank)
Jul 2007EconomyResearch and reports
The Cost of Being Landlocked: Logistics Cost and Supply Chain Reliability
A large proportion of the least developed countries are landlocked and their access to world markets depends on the availability of a trade corridor and transit systems. The paper theoretically and empirically highlights that landlocked economies are primarily affected not only by a high cost of freight services but also by the high degree of unpredictability in transportation time.
(Jean-Francois Arvis, Gael Raballand, Jean-Francois Marteau / World Bank)
Jun 2007Trade Facilitation, TransportWorking papers
Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC): Good Neighbors, Good Partners, Good Prospects | РУССКИЙ
This brochure explains the CAREC Program, its overall institutional framework, strategic action plans, and recent investments in the priority areas of transport, energy, trade facilitation, and trade policy.
Mar 2007Regional Cooperation, Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, EnergyOthers
Migration and Remittances: Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union
Migration in Eastern Europe and Central Asia is unique and significant: it accounts for one-third of all developing country emigration and the Russian Federation is the second largest immigration country worldwide. This report traces the trends of international migration and remittances in Eastern Europe and Cetnral Asia since the transition and their determinants. The report also looks at international migration policy in the region and how current bilateral migration schemes can be improved.
(Ali Mansoor, Bryce Quillin (eds.) / World Bank)
Jan 2007EconomyResearch and reports
Doing Business 2008: Central Asia
The fifth in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it, Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulations and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 178 economies. This report presents the summary indicators for Central Asia.
(World Bank)
2007Economy, Finance, Private SectorResearch and reports
Study on National Coordination Mechanisms for Trade and Transport Facilitation in the UNESCAP Region
This study provides (i) global and regional overviews of activities undertaken with regard to the national trade and transport facilitation coordination, and (ii) good practices in establishing new mechanisms and strengthening existing coordination mechanisms. It also proposes guidelines and recommendations for establishment or strengthening of national coordination mechanisms for trade and transport facilitation in the Asia-Pacific region.
2007Trade Facilitation, TransportResearch and reports
CAREC Regional Road Corridor Improvement Project | РУССКИЙ
This project brief gives an overview of the regional road corridor improvement project that the CAREC Program would implement. This project aims to complete a 550-kilometer trade corridor linking the People's Republic of China (PRC) with the Kyrgyz Republic and Tajikistan.
2007TransportBriefs and notes
Human Development Report 2007/2008 - Fighting Climate Change: Human solidarity in a divided world | РУССКИЙ | 中文
The report shows that climate change is not just a future scenario. It argues that climate change poses challenges at many levels. Climate change challenges people to reflect upon how to manage the environment; reflect on social justice and human rights across countries and generations; for political leaders and people in rich nations to acknowledge their historic responsibility for the problem, and to initiate deep and early cuts in greenhouse gas emissions; and the entire human community to undertake prompt and strong collective action based on shared values and a shared vision.
(Kevin Watkins (lead) / UNDP)
2007OthersResearch and reports
Road Infrastructure in Europe and Central Asia: Does Network Quality Affect Trade?
This paper shows that better roads are strongly associated with larger trade flows within the Eastern Europe and Central Asia region (ECA). Simulation results demonstrate that the benefits for ECA from upgrading its road network may well be greater than from tariff reforms or customs streamlining programs of comparable ambition.
(Ben Shepherd, John S. Wilson / World Bank)
Dec 2006Transport, Trade FacilitationWorking papers
Best Practices in Management of International Trade Corridors
This report provides a comprehensive review of how transport corridors function, what institutional and operational structures are used to manage their performance, how that performance can be assessed and compared with that of other corridors, and what measures can be taken to improve corridor management and through that, corridor performance.
(John Arnold / World Bank)
Dec 2006Trade Facilitation, TransportWorking papers
Bilateral Trade Agreements and World Trading System
This paper identifies the general and specific factors driving the growth in bilateral trade agreements (BTAs), examines how BTAs in general, and different types of BTAs, are affecting the world trading system. Although the sheer number of BTAs is fragmenting the world trading system, the impact of individual BTAs often depends on their underlying motivation. It also considers likely scenarios for the future landscape of world trade, and possible responses.
(Jayant Menon / ADB Institute)
Nov 2006Trade Facilitation, Regional CooperationWorking papers
World Trade Organization: Notes on the Content and Process - Handbook | РУССКИЙ
The Handbook explains the general principles and processes of the World Trade Organization. It elaborates on the significant decisions that have been made in past negotiations, specifically those that are relevant to the current negotiations launched by the Doha Ministerial Declaration in 2001.
(Bhagirath Lal Das / UNDP Regional Centre in Colombo)
Nov 2006Trade PolicyResearch and reports
People and Power: Electricity Sector Reforms and the Poor in Europe and Central Asia
This book brings together a series of studies conducted to find out more about the distributional impacts of electricity sector reforms in the Europe and Central Asia region between 1999 and 2004. It aims to provide insights into how household consumption and expenditure change in response to reform and what happens to payment levels, coping mechanisms used by households, and service quality improvements. It looks at the main strategies used by policy makers to mitigate the impact of reform and assesses the efficacy of these strategies in different settings.
(Julian A. Lampietti, Sudeshna Ghosh Banerjee, Amelia Branczik / World Bank)
Nov 2006EnergyBooks
Beauty Queens and Wallflowers-Currency Maps in the Middle East and Central Asia
Against the background of the theory of optimum currency areas, the paper analyzes possible sequences for establishing a currency union in the Middle East and Central Asia region.
(Julian Berengaut, Katrin Elborgh-Woytek / IMF)
Oct 2006Regional Cooperation, Economy, FinanceWorking papers
Beyond Transition: Newsletter About Reforming Economies
The theme of this newsletter is how regional cooperation in Central Asia can help landlocked countries succeed. The articles are about World Trade Organization accession, regional cooperation in trade, economic performance of Central Asian countries, and other sectors such as education and health.
(World Bank)
Oct 2006Trade Policy, Regional Cooperation, Economy, PovertyOthers
Briefing Note on Regional Cooperation Organizations | РУССКИЙ | 中文
This note provides short descriptions of regional cooperation organizations involved in the formulation and implementation of an intergovernmental agreement on facilitation of international road transport.
(CAREC Secretariat / ADB)
Oct 2006Transport, Regional CooperationBriefs and notes
Regional Assistance to Central Asia
This fact sheet lists ongoing lending projects of the Asian Development Bank under the CAREC Program and regional assistance pipeline for lending and nonlending products for 2006–2007.
Oct 2006Regional CooperationOthers
Lessons of Experience Series: The Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline Project
This paper discusses lessons learned in the design and construction phase of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline project that transports crude oil from Caspian Sea to Mediterranean Sea, running through Azerbaijan and Georgia to a terminal facility at Ceyhan on the Turkish Mediterranean coast.
(Debra Sequeira, Richard Wybess, Ted Pollett / IFC)
Sep 2006EnergyWorking papers
Increasing Inequality in Transition Economies: Is There More to Come?
This paper decomposes changes in inequality, which has in general been increasing in the transition economies of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, both by income source and socioeconomic group, with a view to understanding the determinants of inequality and assessing how it might evolve in the future.
(Pradeep Mitra, Ruslan Yemtsov / International Finance Corporation)
Sep 2006EconomyWorking papers
Trade Taxes in CAREC Countries | РУССКИЙ
The paper analyzes the taxes levied on international trade in CAREC countries. The objective is to understand the nature and the scope of trade taxes in CAREC countries and assess to what extent they could be a barrier to trade. However, understanding overall trade developments in CAREC countries is not possible without examining non-tariff barriers and other policies affecting trade, which are outside the scope of this paper.
(Veronica Bacalu / ADB)
Sep 2006Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2006: Measuring Policy Effectiveness in Health and Education
This publication is the flagship annual statistical data book of the Asian Development Bank. It presents the latest available economic, financial, social, environmental, and Millennium Development Goal indicators for regional members. The special chapter—Measuring Policy Effectiveness in Health and Education—focuses on the generation and utilization of knowledge for policy making and for enhancing government and stakeholder accountability in the health and education sectors.
Aug 2006Economy, Regional CooperationBooks
Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) | РУССКИЙ | 中文
This flyer highlights the basic information on the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) Program. This includes the strategic objectives, participating countries, priority areas, multilateral institutions, overall institutional framework, sector coordinating committees, other partners, and action plan.
Aug 2006Regional CooperationOthers
World Trade Report 2006 – Exploring the Links Between Subsidies, Trade and the WTO
This edition’s core topic is subsidies, exploring how subsidies are defined, what economic theory can tell us about subsidies, why governments use subsidies, the most prominent sectors in which subsidies are applied, and the role of the World Trade Organization Agreement in regulating subsidies in the context of international trade.
(World Trade Organization)
Jul 2006Trade PolicyResearch and reports
The Growth-Poverty Nexus: Evidence from Kazakhstan
This paper examines the extent, dynamics, and distribution of poverty in Kazakhstan during 2001-2004. It quantifies the contributions of growth and redistribution components to overall poverty reduction. The analysis demonstrates that over the period, both the incidence and the depth of poverty have significantly declined, improving the population’s living standards.
(Akram Esanov / ADB Institute)
Jul 2006Economy, PovertyWorking papers
Central Asia after Fifteen Years of Transition: Growth, Regional Cooperation, and Policy Choices
This paper presents a coherent and systematic analysis of the collapse and subsequent revival of the Central Asian Republics (CARs) since 1990. The focus is on the pattern of growth and structural change during the cycle of decline and subsequent revival in the CARs, which have yet to be adequately analyzed in the literature on transition.
(Malcolm Dowling, Ganeshan Wignaraja / ADB)
Jul 2006Regional Cooperation, EconomyWorking papers
Infrastructure in Europe and Central Asia Region: Approaches to Sustainable Services
This report presents an overview of the key developments in the energy and infrastructure sector of the countries in Europe and Central Asia region. It attempts to identify the critical factors for success in the provision of services of acceptable quality and reliability on a sustainable basis.
(World Bank)
Jun 2006Transport, Energy, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Dimensions of Urban Poverty in Europe and Central Asia Region
This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the extent and nature of poverty in urban areas of Europe and Central Asia, giving particular attention to the disparities within urban areas between capital cities and secondary cities and focusing on dimensions of poverty related to provision of network infrastructure and energy services in cities.
(World Bank)
May 2006PovertyResearch and reports
Risk Management: Catalyst of Customs Reforms and Modernization-Experiences and Initiatives of CAREC Participating Countries
Risk management is a key thrust of the Revised Kyoto Convention and one of the priority areas of CAREC’s trade facilitation program. It allows customs to ensure smooth and speedy flow of goods while minimizing risks of missing inspection of illicit transactions. This report is a synthesis of the Trade Facilitation Program’s regional seminars and forums, particularly about seminars and workshops on risk management and post-entry audit held in Urumqi, People's Republic of China (PRC) in September 2003; Tashkent, Uzbekistan in November 2004; and Shenzhen, PRC in June 2005.
(Jeffrey Liang, Dorothea Lazaro / ADB)
Apr 2006Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Economic Cooperation in the Wider Central Asia Region
This paper aims to (i) to lay out some big issues that affect regional cooperation and development in the wider Central Asia region; and (ii) to analyze in greater detail selected areas where there appear to be good prospects for progress in the short run, and which may help generate momentum and facilitate "breakthroughs" in dealing with more difficult issues.
(William Byrd, Martin Raiser, Anton Dobronogov, Alexander Kitain / World Bank)
Apr 2006Regional Cooperation, EconomyWorking papers
The New Impetus towards Economic Integration between Europe and Asia
With the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union the large economic space of the Eurasian super-continent has also become part of the world-wide globalization process. How this process of integration of Eurasia is proceeding in key areas of crosscontinental linkages is of great importance for the future of the region and for the future of the world as a whole. One of the key questions will be whether the regional and global institutions can provide adequate support for this integration process.
(Johannes Linn, David Tiomkin / Asia Europe Journal, 2006, Vol.4, No. 1)
Apr 2006Regional Cooperation, EnergyJournal articles
Central Asia: Mapping Future Prospects to 2015 | РУССКИЙ
This paper considers Central Asia's economic prospects to 2015. It charts recent economic performance, highlighting economic revival. It also synthesizes recent forecasts and constructs scenarios for future economic variables against a constant global background.
(Malcolm Dowling, Ganeshan Wignaraja / ADB)
Apr 2006EconomyWorking papers
Beyond Borders: Reconsidering Regional Trade in Central Asia
This paper investigates the barriers to trade in Central Asia where it uses relative prices to shed some light on impediments to trade. It finds that the impact of borders on price variations across different locations in Central Asia is much smaller than conventionally thought.
(Clemens Grafe, Martin Raiser, Toshiaki Sakatsume / EBRD)
Mar 2006Trade Facilitation, Regional CooperationWorking papers
Quasi-Fiscal Deficits and Energy Conditionality in Selected CIS Countries
Quasi-fiscal deficits of public utility companies constitute a significant impediment to efficient resource allocation and endanger macroeconomic stability. This paper presents a simple framework for measuring and monitoring such deficits and highlights their macroeconomic relevance.
(Tapio Saavalainen, Joy ten berge / IMF)
Feb 2006Energy, Economy, FinanceWorking papers
From Disintegration to Reintegration: Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union in International Trade | РУССКИЙ
This study analyzes the evolution of trade in 27 transition countries in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. It finds that most countries are better integrated into the global economy today than at any time since the Russian Revolution. To take full advantage of greater liberalization, countries must push ahead more strongly on domestic ("behind-the-border") reforms. (Overview in Russian)
(Harry G. Broadman / World Bank)
Feb 2006Economy, Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Comparative Advantage in International Trade for Central Asia
This paper aims to develop strategies for identifying the comparative advantage of Central Asian economies in international trade, given available information about factor prices and transport costs, historical production patterns, and recent trends in the geographical and product composition of Central Asian trade.
(Matthias Lücke, Jacek Rothert / World Bank)
Jan 2006Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyResearch and reports
TIR Customs Transit System: Experiences and Initiatives of CAREC Participating Countries | РУССКИЙ
This paper provides an overview of the TIR (Transport Internationaux Routiers) Transit System and the experiences of CAREC countries that implement the system. It also supports the accession of the People's Republic of China to the TIR Convention.
(Jeffrey Liang, Dorothea Lazaro / ADB)
Jan 2006Transport, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation: Trade Facilitation Program 2005 and 2006 Update
This report updates the CAREC’s Trade Facilitation and Customs Cooperation Program, first published in April 2004. It highlights the progress and major initiatives endorsed by the Customs Cooperation Committee during their Fourth Meeting on 7-9 September 2005 in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. It supplements the progress report prepared for the CAREC’s Senior Officials’ Meeting held on 26-27 April 2005.
2006Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
The Transit Regime for Landlocked States: International Law and Development Perspectives
This study reviews the evolution of the regime of landlocked states, with special attention to the link between international law and development. The study provides a detailed historical account of the legal, and to some extent the political, relations of landlocked and transit countries and examines the difficulties all these countries have faced.
(Kishor Uprety / World Bank)
2006Transport, EconomyBooks
National Millennium Development Goals: A Framework for Action | РУССКИЙ
This report charts countries' progress towards achieving Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) adapted to fit local circumstances in Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. It is intended to serve as a platform for integrating these nationally adapted MDGs into country-level poverty alleviation frameworks.
(Jacek Cukrowski (lead) / UNDP)
2006Poverty, Economy, OthersResearch and reports
Asia-Pacific Human Development Report 2006 - Trade on Human Terms: Transforming Trade for Human Development in Asia and the Pacific
The Report examines from an Asia-Pacific perspective the changes required in the world's trading system, as envisioned in the Global Partnership for Development and the Millennium Development Goals. It proposes a comprehensive development strategy that effectively combines trade liberalization with the promotion of poverty reduction and human development.
2006Economy, Poverty, Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Central Asia: Increasing Gains from Trade through Regional Cooperation in Trade Policy, Transport, and Customs Transit
This report seeks to show how Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan can increase the gains from participation in international trade through regional cooperation in trade policy, transport, and customs transit. It attempts to quantify costs of the lack of cooperation and potential benefits of improved regional cooperation in the three areas for the above countries.
2006Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, Transport, Regional CooperationResearch and reports
Connecting Central Asia: A Road Map for Regional Cooperation
This report looks at (i) the current status of regional road and rail transport in Central Asia and how it is expected to change in the future, (ii) the appropriate objectives for developing regional transport, (iii) key regional transport issues, and (iv) possible options to resolve these issues. An action plan with investment needs is presented to reflect on the urgent priorities requiring attention in the region.
(Manmohan Parkash / ADB)
2006Transport, Regional CooperationResearch and reports
Beyond Microfinance: Building Inclusive Rural Financial Markets in Central Asia
This book focuses on rural finance development issues in a set of countries about which little current literature on the subject exists. It also represents an attempt to redress a serious imbalance in the attention paid to rural financial market development that has been created by the overwhelming interest in and emphasis on microfinance during the last two decades.
(Mario Lamberte, Robert C. Vogel, Roger Thomas Moyes, Nimal A. Fernando (eds.) / ADB)
CAREC Comprehensive Action Plan | РУССКИЙ | 中文
Endorsed at the 5th Ministerial Conference on Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) in October 2006, the Comprehensive Action Plan (CAP) marks a milestone in the development of the CAREC program. This document discusses the strategic framework which outlines the main elements of the CAP, a two-tier system for broadening and deepening the program, and measures for ensuring strategic direction and management.
2006Regional CooperationOthers
CAREC Transport and Trade Facilitation Strategy | РУССКИЙ
The Transport and Trade Facilitation Strategy supports Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) Program's goal of development through cooperation, leading to accelerated economic growth and poverty reduction by upgrading key transport corridors across the CAREC region. It also ensures efficient movement of goods along the corridors through targeted actions to simplify and harmonize the regulations that govern cross-border trade in the region.
2006Transport, Trade FacilitationOthers
Tajikistan-Trade Diagnostic Study
This study examines how improvements in the internal and external trade regimes of Tajikistan and the transport and trade facilitation systems can contribute to sustaining rapid growth and attract foreign investment to win the race against the capital stock decline. Key recommendations are presented in a simple matrix format at the end of this summary for a quick overview.
(World Bank)
Dec 2005Transport, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Prospects for the Electricity and Coal Sectors in Transition Countries
The paper reviews the prospects for the electricity and coal sectors in transition countries in the context of overall growth in demand for primary energy. Much of this paper also focuses on examining the consequences of the shift in relative fuel prices especially against the background of a revival of growth in demand for all sources of energy and for electricity in particular.
(Gordon Hughes / EBRD)
Dec 2005EnergyResearch and reports
Customs Reforms and Modernization: Strategy and Experience of Thai Customs | РУССКИЙ
This paper highlights the customs reform and modernization strategy of Thai Customs and the experience of having a strong leadership to establish a world-class customs, mobilize public resources, and actively participate in regional cooperation initiatives and international conventions. Distilling lessons learned can help CAREC countries avoid mistakes and effectively utilize their public resources for customs reform and modernization.
(Sathit Limpongpan / ADB)
Dec 2005Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Uzbekistan Energy Efficiency in Urban Water Utilities in Central Asia
This study evaluates Energy Efficiency in Urban Water Utilities to test the common assumption that there existed an enormous energy reduction potential in the water utilities in the former Soviet Union and more specifically in Central Asia. The study focused on the historic cities of Samarkand and Bukhara in Uzbekistan.
(Ede Jorge Ijjaz-Vasquez / World Bank)
Oct 2005EnergyResearch and reports
Growth, Poverty and Inequality: Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union | РУССКИЙ
Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union have witnessed a significant decrease in poverty since the Russian financial crisis of 1998-1999. Almost 40 million people moved out of poverty from 1998 to 2003. This report urges countries to continue with enterprise sector reforms, boost rural growth, promote opportunities in lagging regions, increase access to good quality basic services, and produce better social safety nets especially for the working poor and children. (Overview in Russian)
(Asad Alam, Mamta Murthi, Ruslan Yemtsov, Edmundo Murrugarra, Nora Dudwick, Ellen Hamilton, Erwin Tiongson / World Bank)
Oct 2005Economy, PovertyResearch and reports
Central Asia Regional Cooperation Strategy and Program Update 2006–2008: Development through Cooperation | РУССКИЙ | 中文
This regional cooperation strategy and program update on the CAREC Program reviews its response to changing circumstances of both political and social situations as well as emerging needs of the region.
Oct 2005Regional CooperationResearch and reports
Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation: Harmonization and Simplification of Transport Agreements, Cross-Border Documents, and Transport Regulations | РУССКИЙ | 中文
This report identifies divergences between CAREC country’s transport regulations dealing with vehicle emission requirements, axle load control, tariffs and road-user charges, traffic safety, and provision of transport services; and suggests steps toward harmonization and simplification of cross-border transport procedures, documentation and regulations.
(Michael Simms / ADB)
Oct 2005Transport, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Millennium Development Goals: Progress and Prospects in Europe and Central Asia
This publication provides data for key Millennium Development Goal (MDG) indicators compiled from multiple sources for countries of Europe and Central Asia from 1990 onward. It provides a snapshot of the region’s progress toward meeting the global MDGs.
(World Bank)
Sep 2005PovertyResearch and reports
Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2005: Labor Markets in Asia: Promoting Full, Productive, and Decent Employment
This publication is the flagship annual statistical data book of the Asian Development Bank. It presents the latest available economic, financial, social, environmental, and Millennium Development Goal indicators for regional members. The special chapter—Labor Markets in Asia: Promoting Full, Productive, and Decent Employment—highlights the difficulties the region faces in employing its large and growing labor force; and outlines steps that countries should consider in moving toward full, productive, and decent employment.
Aug 2005Economy, Regional CooperationBooks
Risk Management Guide | РУССКИЙ
This Guide promotes modern trade facilitation practices and presents a framework within which CAREC participating customs administrations can develop their own risk management system according to country circumstances.
Aug 2005Trade FacilitationOthers
World Trade Report 2005 – Trade, Standards, and the WTO
This edition focuses on three key areas: (i) the economics of standards in relation to international trade; (ii) the institutional setting in which standard-setting and conformity assessment occurs; and (iii) the role of World Trade Organization agreements in reconciling the legitimate policy uses of standards with an open, non-discriminatory trading system. While much of the analysis deals with product standards, a large number of the issues discussed also apply in the field of services.
(World Trade Organization)
Jun 2005Trade PolicyResearch and reports
The Almaty Agenda
This explanatory note of the Global Facilitation Partnership for Transportation and Trade focuses on The Almaty Agenda. The agenda comprises a list of recommendations and a program of action promulgated by the United Nations Economic and Social Council's Body on least developed and landlocked developing countries at the Almaty ministerial conference held in Kazakhstan in August 2003.
(JBC International / World Bank, DFID)
Jun 2005Trade Facilitation, Regional CooperationBriefs and notes
Trade Logistics: Practical Measures
This explanatory note of the Global Facilitation Partnership for Transportation and Trade focuses on practical measures, in the context of trade logistics. These measures include actions that can be taken by countries to change the import/export process to optimize the supply chain without requiring a significant commitment of government resources.
(JBC International / World Bank, DFID)
Jun 2005Trade FacilitationBriefs and notes
Regional Trade Integration and WTO Accession: Which is the Right Sequencing? An Application to the CIS
This paper analyzes the appropriate sequencing between accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the implementation of the Eurasian Economic Community customs union and whether the latter facilitates or delays WTO accession for some member countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States.
(Patrizia Tumbarello / IMF)
May 2005Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyWorking papers
The Oil and Gas Sector in Transition: Challenges and the Role of the EBRD - Energy Operations Policy
This background report focuses on issues in the oil and gas sectors of transitional economies, covering the upstream (exploration and production), midstream (refining and transportation) and downstream (distribution and consumption). It focuses on the challenges and opportunities in the oil and gas sector, and the potential role of the EBRD as a private sector-oriented, project-based financial institution.
(Julian Lee / EBRD)
May 2005EnergyResearch and reports
Globalization, Geography, and Regional Policy
Recent theorizing on trade and geography attempts to explain globalization patterns and their consequences. This discussion paper looks at how these theories can add to the discussion about regional policy in Asia. It concludes that on both efficiency and equity grounds there remains a case for an active regional policy, and considers current thinking on how such a policy might be implemented.
(John Weiss / ADB Institute)
Apr 2005Trade Facilitation, Regional CooperationWorking papers
Azerbaijan: Issues and Options Associated with Energy Sector Reform
This report outlines the issues and options facing Azerbaijan as it develops and implements its agenda for reform of the energy sector. The report focuses on seven key topics: oil revenue management, petroleum sector, gas sector, power sector, regulatory environment, energy and the environment, and social issues in the energy sector.
(World Bank)
Mar 2005EnergyStudies and research
Singapore’s TradeNet System
Singapore's experience shows that human resource development and change management are important in developing a unified automated information system. Lessons learned from Singapore’s system can help CAREC member countries avoid mistakes and effectively utilize their public resources for customs modernization. (Russian translation is available at the end of the paper.)
(International Trade Institute of Singapore / ADB)
Mar 2005Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Customs Reforms and Modernization: The Philippine Experience
This paper highlights Philippine experience in human resource development and change management in developing a unified automated information system. Distilling lessons learned can help CAREC member countries avoid mistakes and effectively utilize their public resources for customs modernization. (Russian translation is at the end of this report.)
(George M. Jereos / ADB)
Mar 2005Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Central Asia's Transport Cost Burden and Its Impact on Trade
This paper, featured in Economic Systems 29(2005), examines the role of transport costs in causing the countries of Central Asia to generate far less trade with the European Union (EU) than their relative location would suggest. Border-crossing problems, low-traded volumes, and trade imbalance seem to be major explanations of the unexpected low trade level between Central Asia and the EU.
(Gael Raballand, Antoine Kunth, Richard Auty / Economic Systems 29 (2005) 6-31)
Feb 2005Transport, Trade FacilitationJournal articles
Customs Modernization Handbook
This handbook gives an overview of the key elements of a successful customs modernization strategy and draws lessons from a number of successful customs reforms and customs reforms projects undertaken by the World Bank. It also reviews the appropriate legal framework for customs operations and strategies to combat corruption.
(Luc de Wulf and Jose B. Sokol / World Bank)
Jan 2005Trade FacilitationBooks
Regional Cooperation of the CIS7: Past Experience and Options for the Future
The paper aims to present a framework for the analysis of regional cooperation, which will allow for the analysis of the reasons behind limited effectiveness of the existing arrangements and the incentives to improve their implementation.
(Maryla Maliszewska / World Bank)
Jan 2005Energy, Transport, Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, Regional CooperationWorking papers
Trade, Transport and Telecommunications in the South Caucasus: Current Obstacles to Regional Cooperation | РУССКИЙ
This summary paper discusses six studies on current issues and future prospects for Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia (the South Caucasus region) for trade flows, trade facilitation, roads, railroads, telecommunications and tourism.
(World Bank)
Jan 2005Transport, Trade Facilitation, Regional CooperationWorking papers
Central Asia in 2015
This brief highlights the importance of policies in determining the future path of development in the Central Asian Republics (CARs). Based on the three scenarios presented, the findings show that if the region embraces policy reform, regional cooperation and industrial competitiveness, then economic prosperity will be significantly enhanced. (Includes Russian translation)
Jan 2005Regional Cooperation, EconomyBriefs and notes
Central Asia Human Development Report: Bringing Down Barriers | РУССКИЙ
This report shows how governments, business, civil society and communities can come together in many different areas to create greater opportunities for human development and human security in the region.
2005Regional Cooperation, Trade Policy, Trade Facilitation, EnergyResearch and reports
Electricity Sectors in CAREC Member Countries: A Diagnostic Review of Regulatory Approaches and Challenges
The priority of the CAREC Program in the energy sector is to promote efficient and rational use of energy within the region. This study assesses the regulatory approaches and challenges in the electricity sectors of Azerbaijan, People’s Republic of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Mongolia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.
2005EnergyResearch and reports
Review of Maritime Transport 2004
This edition identifies the main developments in world maritime transport and provides relevant statistical data. It focuses on developments concerning maritime activities in developing countries compared to other groups of countries. It also highlights the correlation between the development of global trade and maritime transport activities in general. Regional developments in Asia are the subject of this year’s special chapter.
Dec 2004Transport, Trade FacilitationBooks
Central Asia: Regional Electricity Export Potential Study
This study identifies the potential for electricity exports outside Central Asia and also the impediments that need to be addressed to realize such potential; and assesses how the region's economies meet their own future requirements for electricity.
(World Bank)
Dec 2004EnergyResearch and reports
Cross-Border Transport Infrastructure, Regional Integration, and Development
This paper assesses current thinking from the economics literature on the potential benefits from cross-border infrastructure projects. The allocation of benefits between countries from these projects may be unequal and therefore poses challenges for their financing and implementation. The paper provides case studies from the Mekong and Central Asian regions and suggests directions for future research.
(Manabu Fujimura / ADB Institute)
Nov 2004Transport, Regional CooperationWorking papers
Building Partnerships for Development - CAREC Regional Cooperation Strategy and Program, 2004-2006
Successful regional cooperation is a crucial element in the future peace and prosperity of Central Asia. This first regional cooperation strategy and program (RCSP) focuses on future ADB assistance on regional cooperation.
Oct 2004Regional CooperationResearch and reports
World Trade Report 2004 – Coherence
While trade policy can have a positive impact on a country’s growth and development prospects, this edition stresses the importance of ensuring coherence in policy formulation. It also examines the role of international cooperation in securing policy coherence.
(World Trade Organization)
Sep 2004Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Analysis of Recent Growth in Low-Income CIS Countries
This paper analyzes factors that determine recent economic growth in the low-income countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States-Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyz Republic, Moldova, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.
(Elena Loukoianova, Anna Unigovskaya / IMF)
Aug 2004Economy, PovertyWorking papers
Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2004: Poverty in Asia: Measurement, Estimates, and Prospects
This publication is the flagship annual statistical data book of the Asian Development Bank. It presents the latest available economic, financial, social, environmental, and Millennium Development Goal indicators for regional members. The special chapter—Poverty in Asia: Measurement, Estimates, and Prospects—covers the measurement of poverty, which includes conceptual issues involved in measurement and practices that underlie poverty; explores the connections between poverty, growth, and distribution; and Asia’s prospects for reducing poverty.
Aug 2004Economy, Regional CooperationBooks
Regional Cooperation Strategy and Program for CAREC Member Countries (2005–2007)
The preparation of the Asian Development Bank's (ADB) first regional cooperation strategy and program for CAREC member countries is timely. It will help focus ADB’s efforts for economic cooperation among participating countries.
Jul 2004Regional CooperationResearch and reports
Power's Promise: Electricity Reforms in Eastern Europe and Central Asia
This study analyzes the fiscal, efficiency, social, and environmental impact of power sector reforms in seven countries—Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Moldova, and Poland—in Europe and Central Asia. It aims to improve understanding of the link between sector reform and fiscal outcomes, and how to better monitor the fiscal and efficiency impacts of reform. It also suggests how to design better strategies to mitigate the impact of reform on the poor and the environment.
(Julian Lampietti / World Bank)
Jun 2004EnergyWorking papers
Infrastructure Regulation: Models for Developing Asia
Many governments hope to fund infrastructure expansions with new private sector investment. Relying on private funding requires a good regulatory system to protect both users and investors. This paper surveys both the theory and practice of infrastructure regulation. It distinguishes between price cap and rate of return methods of regulation and considers case studies from particular sectors. A sound regulatory system is found to be an essential element for development.
(Colin Kirkpatrick, David Parker / ADB Institute)
May 2004Energy, Private SectorWorking papers
Microfinance and the Poor in Central Asia: Challenges and Opportunities
This study describes the current status of the microfinance system in Central Asia and identifies practical and reality-based operational interventions to support the expansion of services. The goal is to enable these countries to take fuller part in the growing microfinance movement for the betterment of their mostly poor rural populations and their overall economies.
(World Bank)
May 2004Finance, PovertyWorking papers
Regional Trade Facilitation and Customs Cooperation Program: Progress and Future Directions
This serves as a discussion paper highlighting the progress of the Regional Trade Facilitation and Customs Cooperation Program (RTFCCP) since its launch in 2002, and suggesting future directions for cooperation based on the experience and lessons learned.
Apr 2004Trade FacilitationWorking papers
Water Energy Nexus in Central Asia: Improving Regional Cooperation in the Syr Darya Basin
This report seeks to review the regional cooperation efforts in the water and energy sectors pursued by the Central Asian Republics during the 1990s in the Syr Darya river basin, identify the reasons for the problems encountered, and suggest an approach to make the cooperation more reliable, sustainable and equitably beneficial to all parties concerned.
(World Bank)
Jan 2004Energy, Regional CooperationResearch and reports
The Millennium Development Goals in Europe and Central Asia
This awareness material on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) features the eight goals that aim to reduce poverty and promote human development to sustain social and economic progress. It provides an overview of the MDG targets in Europe and Central Asia.
(World Bank)
FDI and the Investment Climate in the CIS Countries
In view of disappointing levels of inward foreign direct investment (FDI), this policy paper examines capital flows into the Commonwealth of Independent States and investigates the main impediments to a more favorable investment climate. Direct investment inflows have generally been related to natural resource extraction or energy transport infrastructure projects, large privatization transactions, and debt–equity swaps to pay for energy supplies.
(Clinton R. Shiells / IMF)
Nov 2003EconomyResearch and reports
Transition and International Integration in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union
This paper investigates the extent of integration of the transition economies into the world economy. It finds southeastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) trade significantly less with the world economy than the accession countries due to the low quality of economic institutions and the landlocked nature of its countries.
(Ian Babetskii, Oxana Babetskaia-Kukharchuk, Martin Raiser / EBRD)
Nov 2003Trade Facilitation, Regional Cooperation, EconomyWorking papers
Of Openness and Distance: Trade Developments in the Commonwealth of Independent States, 1993-2002
This paper analyzes developments in the structure of trade in the Commonwealth of Independent States during the transition decade, and finds that it changed less than in other transition economies.
(Katrin Elborgh-Woytek / IMF)
Oct 2003Trade Policy, Trade FacilitationWorking papers
World Trade Report 2003 – Trade and Development
The main topic of this edition is “development.” The report explains the origin of development and offers an analytical framework on the relationship between trade and devleopment. The report also extensively examines the Doha Round of global trade negotiations and states clearly that these talks hold significant potential for raising levels of development in impoverished countries.
(World Trade Organization)
Aug 2003Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2003: Education for Global Participation
This publication is the flagship annual statistical data book of the Asian Development Bank. It presents the latest available economic, financial, social, environmental, and Millennium Development Goal indicators for regional members. The special chapter—Education for Global Participation—summarizes key benefits of education for both individuals and national economies; reviews the education status, challenges, and experiences of developing member countries; and analyzes the need for reforms of education and training systems in the globalized economy.
Aug 2003Economy, Regional CooperationBooks
Moving People to Deliver Services
This volume provides a comprehensive economic and legal analysis of key issues under the “temporary movement of individual service suppliers” of the General Agreement on Trade in Services. These issues include aging populations, shortages of skilled labor, social disruption in host countries, and brain drain from poor countries.
(Aaditya Mattoo and Antonia Carzaniga, eds. / World Bank)
Jun 2003Trade PolicyBooks
Environment Statistics in Central Asia: Progress and Prospects
This paper provides an up-to-date assessment of environmental conditions relating to air and water. It also identifies and discusses major flaws and gaps in the existing national statistical systems, and suggests some tentative priorities for improvement.
(Robert Ballance, Bishnu D. Pant / ADB)
Mar 2003OthersWorking papers
Power sector regulatory reform in transition economies: Progress and lessons learned
This paper discusses the progress made in regulatory reform in the power sector of most transition economies. Further reform is required to secure power tariff increases and private sector participation.
(David Kennedy / EBRD)
Feb 2003Energy, Private SectorWorking papers
Uzbekistan: Trade and Trade Facilitation Review
The paper provides an overview of foreign trade between Uzbekistan and both Commonwealth of Independent States-7 and other countries, as a basis for assessing trade performance. It assesses the trade policy of Uzbekistan as a basis for recommending trade facilitation measures. It identifies (i) the strengths, weaknesses, and constraints of the private sector; (ii) key obstacles to trade facilitation in relation to hard and soft trade infrastructure; and (iii) key areas for trade facilitation and regional cooperation.
Jan 2003Trade Facilitation, Trade Policy, Regional CooperationResearch and reports
State-Owned Banks in the Transition: Origins, Evolutions, and Policy Responses
Continued state ownership of banking systems in transition economies has undermined economic reform efforts and distorted emerging markets. This study examines the history and evolution of state banks in the transition economies of Europe and Central Asia. It has seven case studies of individual state banks that have been reformed or privatized over the past decade.
(Khaled Sherif, Michael Borish, Alexandra Gross / World Bank)
Jan 2003Finance, Private SectorResearch and reports
Central Asia: Reassessment of the Regional Transport Sector Strategy
This reassessment aims to prepare a draft strategy and a sector road map for Central Asia’s regional transport sector, which will be ADB’s basis for discussion and consultation with its member countries.
(Ian Jenkins, Paul Pezant / ADB)
Jan 2003TransportResearch and reports
Transportation Facilitation in Azerbaijan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan: Challenges and Opportunities
This paper analyzes the deficiencies of transportation systems, bilateral and multilateral transportation agreements, management and governance of transportation, and resources; and their effects on trade, and present remedial measures in the context of national, regional and international political, social, cultural, and economic objectives.
(Prianka N. Seneviratne / ADB)
Jan 2003Transport, Trade FacilitationResearch and reports
Urban Transport in the Europe and Central Asia Region: World Bank Experience and Strategy
Urban roads and public transport services are essential for the daily lives of citizens and for the local economy, as cities grow larger and travel distances to work become too long for walking. This paper provides a common thematic basis for urban transport inputs in making country-specific World Bank assistance strategies, and thereafter, guides urban transport project and sector work for countries and cities in ECA, in line with adopted strategies.
(Slobodan Mitric / World Bank)
Dec 2002TransportResearch and reports
Cross-Border Issues in Energy Trade in the CIS Countries
This paper explores from a regional perspective the distorted nature of trade in energy products within the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries. It focuses on cross-border issues as an integral component of the wider problem of inefficient energy use within CIS.
(John R. Dodsworth, Paul Henri Mathieu, Clinton R. Shiells / IMF)
Dec 2002Energy, Trade FacilitationWorking papers
Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Program: Status Report 2002
This report focuses on the status of the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC )Program, its successes, and the upcoming challenges it has to address.
Sep 2002Regional CooperationResearch and reports
Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2002: Population and Human Resource Trends and Challenges
This publication is the flagship annual statistical data book of the Asian Development Bank. It presents the latest available economic, financial, social, environmental, and Millennium Development Goal indicators for regional members. The special chapter—Population and Human Resource Trends and Challenges—offers a broad overview of demographic and human resource trends in the Asia and Pacific region, and considers some possible policy implications these developments have for developing countries in the region.
Aug 2002Economy, Regional CooperationBooks
The Study on Water and Energy Nexus in Central Asia
This study provides an analytical basis for the Asian Development Bank to formulate a regional strategy of timely assistance in the Aral Sea Basin of Central Asia, focusing on the inter-linkage between water use management and energy trade with an action plan for the short to medium term.
(J. Michael Biddison / ADB)
Aug 2002EnergyResearch and reports
The Energy Intensity of Transition Countries
The economies of central and eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union have traditionally been very energy intensive. The paper shows that energy prices and progress in enterprise restructuring are the two most important drivers for more efficient energy use.
(Jan Cornillie, Samuel Fankhauser / EBRD)
Jun 2002EnergyWorking papers
Energy Sector Quasi-Fiscal Activities in the Countries of the Former Soviet Union
This paper analyses the continuing use of energy sector quasi-fiscal activities to provide large implicit and untargeted subsidies on such activities in former Soviet Union countries, especially in Azerbaijan and Ukraine. These activities disguise the overall size of the government, cause overconsumption and waste, and contribute to macroeconomic imbalances.
(Martin Petri, Gunther Taube, Aleh Tsyvinski / IMF)
May 2002Economy, Finance, EnergyWorking papers
EBRD's Trade Facilitation Programme
This brochure highlights how European Bank for Reconstruction and Development's Trade Facilitation Programme promotes foreign trade with the countries of operations from Central Europe to Central Asia.
May 2002Trade FacilitationOthers
The Environmental Implications of Privatization: Lessons for Developing Countries
This report reviews a number of case studies to draw lessons about the environmental implications of privatization. It includes case studies on Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan.
(Magda Lovei, Bradford S. Gentry / World Bank)
Apr 2002Private Sector, OthersWorking papers
The World Bank in Europe and Central Asia 2002
With central planning disappearing in the countries of Europe and Central Asia, the 10-year transition to market economy has been challenging. To assist these countries, the World Bank's approach is built on three main pillars: (i) a vibrant private sector underpinned by an efficient and focused public sector; (ii) social development, protection and consultation; and (iii) attention to global issues that affect the region and other parts of the world. This report gives information on the Bank's activities in the region.
(World Bank)
Jan 2002EconomyWorking papers
Capacity Building in Economics: Education and Research in Transition Economies
The development of the institutional capacity to create and evaluate economic policies remains a critical need-and constraint-in most transition economies if they are to complete the successful passage to market economies. This paper presents findings from a comprehensive study assessing the state of economics education and research in East-Central Europe and the former Soviet republics.
(Boris Pleskovic, Anders Aslund, William Bader, Robert Campbell / World Bank)
Jan 2002Economy, Capacity DevelopmentWorking papers
Transition - The First Ten Years: Analysis and Lessons for Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union
The report looks at the policy and institutional conditions that encourage the growth of new firms in transition economies while imposing financial discipline on the old firms inherited from the socialist past. While emphasizing the importance of market-oriented policy reforms, the report also examines political strategies to push the reform process forward in different transition countries.
(World Bank)
Jan 2002Economy, Private SectorResearch and reports
Fact Sheet: The EBRD's Trade Facilitation Programme
This fact sheet provides basic information on the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development's Trade Facilitation Programme (TFP). TFP aims to promote foreign trade to, from and within Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States.
2002Trade FacilitationOthers
Nature's Blessing or Nature's Curse: The Political Economy of Transition in Resource-based Economies
This paper looks back over the first decade of independence of former Soviet republics and draws some lessons from the experience made to date. It focuses on the energy-rich states and contrasts their development to that in the resource-poor countries at the periphery of the Commonwealth of Independent States.
(Akram Esanov, Martin Raiser, Willem Buiter / EBRD)
Nov 2001Economy, EnergyWorking papers
The Russian Financial Crisis and Its Consequences for Central Asia
This paper reviews the economic conditions in central Asia at the time of the Russian financial crisis of August 1998, the channels by which the crisis was transmitted to the central Asian region, and the policy responses.
(Gonzalo C. Pastor, Tatiana Damjanovic / IMF)
Oct 2001EconomyWorking papers
Cleaner Transport Fuels for Cleaner Air in Central Asia and the Caucasus
The World Bank undertook a regional study on cleaner transport fuels for urban quality improvement in the region, recognizing that fuel quality improvements should be linked to broader air quality management, to ensure cost-effectiveness, and in addressing these issues, it is therefore possible to build on economies of scale, avoid duplications, allow the transfer of experience, and facilitate intra-regional trade in petroleum products. This leads to this study's observations and recommendations.
(Joint UNDP/World Bank ESMAP)
Aug 2001Transport, EnergyResearch and reports
Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2001: Growth and Change in Asia and the Pacific
This publication is the flagship annual statistical data book of the Asian Development Bank. It attempts to highlight major socioeconomic trends in the Asia–Pacific region, addressing issues connected with data and the strategic choices necessary to improve data availability.
Aug 2001Economy, Regional CooperationBooks
Accession to the WTO: The Case of Turkmenistan
This background paper outlines the main obstacles to Turkmenistan's accession to the World Trade Organization and presents recommendations to help improve the country's prospect for membership.
(Mehrdad Haghayeghi / UNESCAP)
Jun 2001Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Rebuilding the Silk Road—Encouraging Economic Cooperation in Central Asia: The Role of the Asian Development Bank
This brochure presents an overview of the opportunities of and challenges to economic cooperation in the Central Asia region and the Asian Development Bank's (ADB) regional program in support of this. It highlights the three priority areas of ADB's initiative, namely: energy, trade, and transport.
2001Regional Cooperation, Transport, Trade Facilitation, EnergyOthers
Electric Energy: Final Report
This report, a product of RETA 5818 (Phase II): Regional Economic Cooperation in Central Asia, discusses the current electricity pool of Central Asia (particularly for Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan) and proposes project for the rehabilitation and uprating of the Central Asia power system operation.
(Lahmeyer International / ADB)
Dec 2000EnergyResearch and reports
Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2000
This publication is the flagship annual statistical data book of the Asian Development Bank. It includes (i) regional statistical tables, where selected indicators are compared across developing member countries, and (ii) country tables, which detail 1982-1999 annual population, economic and financial statistics of each member country.
Aug 2000Economy, Regional CooperationBooks
Making Transition Work for Everyone: Poverty and Inequality in Europe and Central Asia | РУССКИЙ
The book brings together the latest findings on the nature and evolution of poverty and inequality in the region. It explores the different responses to this collapse and their implications for poverty and inequality. Incomplete market reforms, high levels of bureaucratic corruption, and the capture of national governments by powerful business elites account for some of the major differences in poverty and inequality outcomes among countries.
(World Bank)
Aug 2000Poverty, EconomyBooks
Disintegration and Trade Flows: Evidence from the Former Soviet Union
This study of trade flows among and between nine Russian regions and 14 republics of the former Soviet Union shows a bias toward domestic trade in the reform period that is primarily the result of tariffs.
(Simeon Djankov, Caroline Freund / World Bank)
Jun 2000Trade FacilitationWorking papers
Vehicle Fleet Characterization in Central Asia and the Caucasus
This report sums up the vehicle fleet analysis, covering Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The analysis characterizes the current vehicle fleet, identifies the fuel requirements of the current vehicle technologies, and assesses current emissions standards for vehicles now in use.
(World Bank)
Jan 2000TransportResearch and reports
Trade Cooperation between Kazakhstan and the Kyrgyz Republic
This publication summarizes the discussions and recommendations at the Kazakhstan-Kyrgyz Republic Trade Cooperation Workshop held on 14 August 1998 in Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic. Among the topics included how the policy environment at the Kazakh-Kyrgyz border affects general trade, traffic, and economic cooperation; identifying any continuing policy impediments to trade; and promoting discussion of policy modifications that might address these problems.
May 1999Trade Facilitation, Trade PolicyResearch and reports
Challenges and Opportunities in Transportation: First Workshop on Economic Cooperation in Central Asia
This publication has discussions and background papers of the first workshop on economic cooperation which focused on the transport sector. It features transport status in CAREC participating countries and financing potentials of transport projects.
(David Jay Green (ed.) / ADB)
Challenges and Opportunities in Energy: Second Workshop on Economic Cooperation in Central Asia
This publication is a compilation of papers and presentations on energy. It features transport status in CAREC participating countries, investment needs, and financing potentials of energy projects.
(David Jay Green (ed.) / ADB)
Kazakhstan: Natural Gas Investment Strategy Study (Volume 1 of 3, Executive Summary and Main Text)
This paper discusses the challenge to Kazakhstan on how best to exploit its gas resource base and ensure that its gas resources deliver the maximum potential benefits to the country's economy. This paper also explores a strategic path to (i) ensure that gas sector development maximizes the economic benefit of liquids production, (ii) restore the commercial viability of Kazakh gas operations, and (iii) establish a position as a supplier of gas to the international market.
(ESMAP / World Bank)
Dec 1997EnergyResearch and reports
Kazakhstan: Natural Gas Investment Strategy Study (Volume 2 of 3, Appendices 1 through 3)
This paper discusses the challenge to Kazakhstan on how best to exploit its gas resource base and ensure that its gas resources deliver the maximum potential benefits to the country's economy. Appendices 1 to 3 cover gas pipeline projects, gas reserves, and supply and demand information.
(ESMAP / World Bank)
Dec 1997EnergyResearch and reports
Kazakhstan: Natural Gas Investment Strategy Study (Volume 3 of 3, Appendices 4 through 6)
This paper discusses the challenge to Kazakhstan on how best to exploit its gas resource base and ensure that its gas resources deliver the maximum potential benefits to the country's economy. Appendices 4 to 6 cover potential gas markets in Europe, gas regulatory framework and principles, and financing and resourcing.
(ESMAP / World Bank)
Dec 1997EnergyResearch and reports
Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan: Opportunities for Renewable Energy Development
The study performs a preliminary assessment of the renewable energy (RE) resources in Kazakhstan and the Kyrgyz Republic, and identifies the resources most promising for development in each country. The study also takes a regional approach to market development, examining the possibility of joint development and of marketing RE systems in the region's countries.
(ESMAP / World Bank)
Nov 1997EnergyResearch and reports
Returned 535 resources